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TEM and SEM studies on nano- and micro-capsules from biodegradable polymers for drug encapsulation. V.S. Teodorescu*, M.G. Blanchin**, S. Guinebretière***, S. Briançon***, H. Fessi*** * INCDFM, Bucharest-Magurele, ROMANIA

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tem and sem studies on nano and micro capsules from biodegradable polymers for drug encapsulation
TEM and SEM studies on nano- and micro-capsules from biodegradable polymers for drug encapsulation
  • V.S. Teodorescu*, M.G. Blanchin**,
  • S. Guinebretière***, S. Briançon***, H. Fessi***
  • * INCDFM, Bucharest-Magurele, ROMANIA
  • **Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée et Nanostructures, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1,Villeurbanne, FRANCE
  • ***Laboratoire d ’Automatique et de Génie des Procédés, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1,Villeurbanne, FRANCE
slide2

Vectorisation , encapsulaion,

electron microscopy TEM and SEM

  • Polymeric capsules are increasingly used as vectors for applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics…
  • Pharmaceutical applications for intravenous vectorisation require capsule sizes down to the nanometer range
  • SEM and also TEM should be used to study of the structure and the morphology of nano- and micro-capsules
encapsulation
Encapsulation

Nanocapsules

as containers

Nanospheres

as matrices

10 - 1000 nm

- protection of the drug

- vectorisation toward the target

- control of drug release

preparation of nanocapsules
Preparation of nanocapsules
  • Water and solvent partially miscibles (ethyl acetate)
    • Polymer : soluble in solvent, insoluble in water (biodegradable polyesters / e.g. poly-e-caprolactone PCL)
    • Oil :miscible with polymer solution, dissolves the drug (triglycerides)
    • Tensio active compound as stabilizer in the aqueous phase (PVA, copolymer)
    • Water and solvent initially saturated  stable emulsion
    • Dilution with distilled water

 Diffusion of the solvent

Drops  capsules i.e. core:oil + drug+ polymer membrane around the core

preparation of nanocapsules5
Preparation of nanocapsules

Oil + drug +

Polymer

  • Oil + polymer + solvent
    • + drug

solvent

DROP 1 mm

CAPSULE  500 nm

external phase: saturated water + sabilizer

external phase: distilled water + stabilizer

positive tem observations direct deposition of the nc on the carbon gride

200 nm

100 nm

Positive TEM observationsDirect deposition of the NC on the carbon gride

The NC membrane can be estimated from to the dark halo due to the stabilizer

Image of a broken NC ( during TEM observation) revealing the oil content. A halo of liquid expands around the NC on the carbon film

positive tem observations
Positive TEM observations

Spongeous structure inside the NC

crystallization of polymer inside the nc
Crystallization of polymer inside the NC

Monocrystal

polymer

capsule

Polycrystalline

sponge

polymer inside

the capsule

micro capsules
Micro- capsules

SEM image

The black points on the capsule surface are holes connecing the internal pores to the surface

TEM images

slide12

CONCLUSIONS

  • TEM structural and morphological study of polymeric NC for drug encapsulation can be made using the classic negativation method, but also by direct observations
  • Direct deposition of the NC on the TEM grids provides data about all the components of the NC
  • The polymeric membrane of the NC can be resolved using TEM direct observation
  • TEM observations are complementary to the SEM images in the case of capsules in the range of 1 to 10 mm.