alcohol reactions n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Alcohol reactions PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Alcohol reactions

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 14

Alcohol reactions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 230 Views
  • Uploaded on

Alcohol reactions. Alcohols – reactions. Addition of alkene to form alcohol. Elimination of alcohol to form alkene. Halogenation (substitution) of alcohol to form haloalkane. Oxidation of alcohol to form aldehyde/ketone and carboxylic acid. Alkene to alcohol.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Alcohol reactions' - olisa


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
alcohols reactions
Alcohols – reactions
  • Addition of alkene to form alcohol.
  • Elimination of alcohol to form alkene.
  • Halogenation (substitution) of alcohol to form haloalkane.
  • Oxidation of alcohol to form aldehyde/ketone and carboxylic acid.
alkene to alcohol
Alkene to alcohol
  • Addition – Adding water to alkene gives an alcohol.
  • this occurs when we heat the alcohol with 50% sulfuric acid.
  • The hydrogen and the OH of the water is added to the alkene around the double bond.
alcohol to alkene
Alcohol to alkene
  • Elimination – removing water from an alcohol produces an alkene (by conc H2SO4)
  • The removal of 2 atoms or groups is known as an elimination reaction
  • The –OH and hydrogen from the neighbouring atom are removed.
alcohol and oxygen
Alcohol and oxygen
  • Combustion: Alcohol of low molar mass burn easily in the presence of oxygen, to form carbon dioxide and water.
alcohols elimination
Alcohols - Elimination
  • Or dehydration –removal of the hydroxyl group and hydrogen atom of the neighbouring carbon
  • concH2SO4/heat

CH3CH(OH)CH3 CH3CH=CH2 + H2O

propan-2-ol propene

alcohols substitution
Alcohols - substitution
  • Or halogenation: –OH replaced by halogen atom forms a haloalkane
    • PCl5 – phosphorus pentachloride
    • SOCl2 – thionyl chloride

(These things put chloride on and kick off –OH group)

  • Performed under reflux – increases the rate of substitution
  • These can be used to substitute the –OH group in an alcohol with a –Cl:

CH3OH + PCl5 CH3Cl+ POCl3 + HCl

CH3OH + SOCl2 CH3Cl+ SO2 + HCl

lucas reagent
Lucas reagent
  • Lucas reagent – anhydrous Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and conc HCl.
  • The Lucas reagent is used to primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols
  • The zinc chloride is a catalyst for the substitution reaction between the alcohol and HCl.
  • The chloroalkane (haloalkane) formed is a cloudy suspension in water as they are insoluble.
  • The rates at which different alcohols react make it possible to classify them.
alcohols oxidation
Alcohols - Oxidation
  • Back in Level 2 organic chemistry we learnt that alcohols come in three main forms:
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
  • We also found out that primary alcohols can be oxidised to form carboxylic acids
  • Later we will discover that primary alcohols can be partially oxidised to form a group called aldehydes. Then the aldehydes can be oxidised further to form carboxylic acids:
  • This year we will also discover that secondary alcohols can be oxidised to form ketones: