SCONLI-3 Corpus Based study of Relative clauses in Hindi & Telugu Transfer grammar rules for relative clauses Viswanatha Naidu Y IIIT-Hyderabad 20-02-09 email@example.com
SCONLI-3, India OUTLINE • Introduction • Hindi Relative clause overview • Telugu Relative clause overview • Transfer grammar & Rules • Examples • Conclusion
SCONLI-3, India Relative clause overview • Restricts or qualify the meaning of the noun in NP • Languages like English explicitly indicate with relative pronouns • Relative pronouns occur in the initial or part of PP or NP
SCONLI-3, India Types of Relative clause There are two types of relative clauses 1.Restrictive clause 2.Non-restrictive clause
SCONLI-3, India Helps the hearer/ reader to identify the referent of the noun phrase. Rel. pronoun can be dropped Serves to give hearer an added piece of information identified entity Provides additionalinfo. Use of Proper nouns Restrictive Non-Restrictive How does he/she know the distinction? Very often the distinction expressed intonationally, but also orthographically with punctuation marker.
SCONLI-3, India Restrictive clause The young linguist whom I saw in the conference lives in Hyderabad. Non-Restrictive clause Chomsky,who arrived for the conference lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
SCONLI-3, India The accessibility hierarchy defined (comrie, 1977) as SubjectDirect objectNon-direct object Possessive • Easy to relativize subjects than it is to relativize any of the other positions
SCONLI-3, India Hindi also has the Restrictive – Non-Restrictive Distinction. Restrictive clause E.g. jo billi mere gara mem hai vaha cUhe se DartA hai Rel. cat.3.sg my house.nom in is that. Rat Abl afraid is ‘The cat in my house is afraid of Rat.’ Non-restrictive clause Chandrababu Naidu, jo Andhra Pradesh kA mukhya mantrI REL GEN chief.M minister.M thA Ajkal yahAM hai. Was.sg now a days here is Chandrababu Naidu who was the CM of AP is here now a days.
SCONLI-3, India Hindi Relative clauses overview Two types of relative clauses 1.Correlative clause 2.Participle clause
SCONLI-3, India Have an explicit relative markers. These markers will be preceded by the nouns Appear initial position of the clauses No explicit markers Two types of participle relatives, Present Participle Past Participle Modify head noun as relative clause do. Correlative clause | Participle clause
SCONLI-3, India Correlative clauses In correlatives any NP position can be relativized. Like Subjects, objects, Indirect, Oblique including Instruments, locatives etc. Instrumental Relativization jis cAku se maine murgI ko kAtA vaha bahut tej thA REL knife.M with I.nom hen.M. Accu cut that very sharp was.M The knife with which I cut the hen was very sharp
SCONLI-3, India All verbs yield present participle forms, which have two functions. Adjectival Adverbial Inflect for Person, Number, Gender. Appear in the form (verb +-tA +huA). Only a restricted set of verbs yield past participle forms, which indicate achievement. which have two functions. Adjectival Adverbial Inflect for Person, Number, Gender. Appear in the form (verb + -A + huA). Present participle & Past participle
SCONLI-3, India Hindi does not allow to relativize the Instrument, locative, etc. It allows only subjects and objects. Subject Relativization dauDA huA laDkA acAnak ruk gayA running was boy suddenly stop. Came. ‘The boy who was running suddenly came to stop’ Instrumental Relativization *mere dwArA kelA kAtA huA cAkU le jAo I by Banana cut did. knife.M take away Take away the knife with which I cut the Banana Locative Relativization *mere dwArA baitI huI kurcI bahut mAngI hai. I by sit.F did.Chsir verycostly. is The chair in which I sat is costly.
SCONLI-3, India Telugu Relative clause overview • Telugu also has two types of relative clauses • Correlative clauses • Participle clauses • But, correlatives are not normal in Telugu (Bh.Krishnamurthy) used in more formal speech. • My experience of working in corpus gave the same experience as I hardly found the correlatives eppudu Akalaite appudu tinAli. whenever. Hungry that+time eat. More naturally it can be expressed using participles
SCONLI-3, India Participle Relative clauses • Participles form by means of non-finite construction • Do not inflect person, number, gender E.g. ADutunna abbAyi bAwunnAdu. play.v.adj.conti boy.Nom good.3.sg.. M The boy, who is playing is good. Accessibility hierarchy of Participle Relativization in Telugu is more frequent, Higher, (oblique forms can also be relativized).
SCONLI-3, India MT ARCHITECTURE • POS TAGGAER • CHUNKER • MORPH ANALYZER • TOKENIZER • PARSER • NER • WSD • Etc. ANALYSIS TRANSFER • TRANSFER GRAMMAR 1.Lexical grammar 2.Structural grammar • TRANSILITERATION • Default features • TL specific features • Word generator • Etc. GENERATOR
SCONLI-3, India Transfer grammar • One of the approaches to Machine Translation • Captures ‘structural differences’ between SL & TL • Aim to develop the MT system
SCONLI-3, India ORGANIZATION OF TRANSFER GRAMMAR input • Removing specific features of • grammar in SL • Bridging the gap between SL & TL Lexical & Structural Transfer Rules • Nouns • Verbs • Adjectives • Adverbs • Prepositions • Conjunctions • Miscellaneous Final adjustment by the generator according to the TL features output
SCONLI-3, India Relative clause rules jo AmdhI kal AyI thI vah bahut nuksAn kar gayI Rel. storm.F yesterday come.Pef.F.sg Past.F.sg that much damage.M do go.PerfF.sg ninna vaccina tufAnu cAlA nasTam cesindi. Yesterday.Nom come.past.verbal.adj storm.Nom much damage did.Non-Mascu.3.sg ‘The storm that raged yesterday did a great deal of damage’ जो आँधी कल आयी थी वो बहुत नुकसान कर गयी నిన్న వచ్చిన తుఫాను చాలా నష్టము చేసింది
SCONLI-3, India वो बहुत नुकसान कर गयी Null చాలా నష్టము చేసింది vo bahut nuksAn kar_gayI Null cAlA nasTam cesindi Till now mapping between main clause-main clause there are no problems except the correlative marker Let’s see the sub-ordinate clause mapping
SCONLI-3, India जो आँधी कल आयी-थी Null నిన్న తుఫాను వచ్చింది jo AndhI kal AyI-thI Null ninna tufAnu vaccindi Here we can clearly see, there is a gap between SL and TL in three aspects. No relative marker in TL SL sub-ordinate +Tense into Non-finite form Word order change
SCONLI-3, India RULES Change of word order according to TL 2. Deleting the relative makers (jo & vo) 3. Converting the finite into non-finite
SCONLI-3, India जो आन्दी कल आयी थी वो बहुत नुकसान करगयी Null నిన్న వచ్చిన తుఫాను Null చాలా నష్టము చేసింది
SCONLI-3, India Change of word order according to TL jo AndhI kal AyI_thI vo bahut nuksAn kargayI Null ninna vaccina tufAnu Null cAlA nasTam cesindi
SCONLI-3, India jo kal AyI_thI AndhI vo bahut nuksAn kargayI Null ninna vaccina tufAnu Null cAlA nasTam cesindi
SCONLI-3, India Deleting the relative makers (jo & vo) जो कल आयी थी आंधी वो बहुत नुकसान करगयी Null నిన్న వచ్చిన తుఫాను Null చాలా నష్టము చేసింది
SCONLI-3, India kal AyI_thI AndhI bahut nuksAn kargayI ninna vaccina tufAnu cAlA nasTam cesindi
SCONLI-3, India कल आयी थी आंधी बहुत नुकसान करगयी నిన్న వచ్చిన తుఫాను చాలా నష్టము చేసింది Converting the finite into non-finite
SCONLI-3, India kal Aya+(Past.V.adj) AndhI bahut nuksAn kargayI ninna vaccina tufAnu cAlA nasTam cesindi
SCONLI-3, India कल आय्(Past.v.adj) आंधी बहुत नुकसान करगयी నిన్న వచ్చిన తుఫాను చాలా నష్టము చేసింది
SCONLI-3, India REQUIRED RESOURCES • LARGE AMNOUNT OF CORPUS, REPRESENTS ALL • DOMAINS • BROAD COVERAGE MORPH ANALYZER, GENERATOR >BROAD COVERAGE E-BILINGUAL LEXICONS • LARGE AMOUNT OF POS & PARSED TREE BANK CORPUS • LARGE AMOUNT OF PARALLEL CORPORA • Apart from, there is an high necessity of well trained LINGUIST for modeling the language (s), and a Computer Scientist for implementing the model (s).
SCONLI-3, India Thank you for patience