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Neuron - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Neuron. Neurons. How do biological processes relate to behavior?. Neurons : the communicators of the nervous system. Transmitting signals. Fluids containing positively charged ions (NA+) (K+) and negatively charged ions ( Cl -) are constantly passing through the cell membrane

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How do biological processes relate to behavior?

Transmitting signals
Transmitting signals

  • Fluids containing positively charged ions (NA+) (K+) and negatively charged ions (Cl-) are constantly passing through the cell membrane

  • Inactive neuron has more negative inside than outside

    • this creates a store of energy called resting potential

Transmitting signals cont
Transmitting signals cont.

  • When the cell is stimulated it lets in positively charged sodium ions.

    • This creates action potential

    • Short-lived charge

    • Sends information down the axon to the axon terminals

Transmitting signals cont1
Transmitting signals cont.

  • After the action potential zooms down the axon, the channels in the membrane close.

    • No more sodium can get in.

  • They remain closed for a short amount of time and no impulses can fire

    • This is called the refractory period

All or none

  • The neuron either fires or it doesn’t


  • Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap

  • When the action potential reaches the terminal buttons, the neurotransmitters are released.

  • Bind to receptor sites

    • Like keys

    • Extra neurotransmitter is returned to the cell (reuptake)

Transmitting signal
Transmitting signal

  • Excitatory response (+charge) –depolarization

    • Action potential likely

  • Inhibitory response (- charge) –hyperpolarization

    • Action potential unlikely

  • If the voltage changes enough to reach threshold, the neuron will fire.

Sodium potassium pump
Sodium Potassium pump

  • To get ready for another action potential, Na+ needs to be pumped out and K+ needs to be pumped in.