By: Newaz Ahmed The Oil Industry
C.2.1 • Compare the use of oil as an energy source and as a chemical feedstock.
C.2.1 • Energy source: Most of the refined products of crude oil are used as an energy source. It’s most common use as an energy source is in gasoline of cars. Others include: heating, use in manufacturing, and electricity. • Others: It can also be used to make other things, such as lubricant, fertilizer, synthetic fibers, and plastic.
C.2.1 • Chemical Feedstock: About 7% of refined oil is used as chemical feedstock. • Chemical Feedstock: Raw material required for an industrial process. • Although a very low percentage of it is used as chemical feedstock, it is the most significant source of organic chemicals.
C.2.1 A graph, showing how oil is used. http://www.manicore.com/anglais/documentation_a/articles_a/palace_graph3.jpg
C.2.2 • Compare catalytic cracking, thermal cracking, and steam cracking.
C.2.2 • Thermal Cracking: Thermal decomposition, often used with catalysts. • In the oil industry, petroleum is broken into smaller molecules to extract low-boiling fractions (mainly: Gasoline). • This is done by heating hydrocarbons at high temperatures until they break apart.
C.2.2 The heat/catalyst breaks down the heavy gas into smaller particles of gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Heavy Gas What the heavy gas is broken down into
C.2.2 • Catalytic Cracking: Use of a catalyst to speed up the cracking reaction. • Common catalysts include: zeolite, aluminum hydrosilicate, bauxite, and silica-alumina.
C.2.2 • Steam cracking: High temperature steam is used to break up compounds. • Temperatures are usually around 1500 degrees Fahrenheit (about 816 degrees Celsius). • Used to break up ethane, butane, and naphtha, into ethylene and benzene. These can be used to manufacture the chemicals needed.
C.2.2 Notice that double bonds are formed. Another example of how one long molecule is broken down into two smaller ones.
C.2.2 • YouTube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1L0ETG5jYVk&feature=related • Shows an experiment in which cracking takes place.