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Strategic Leadership. MDWSC Georgia Nov/Dec 2011 Colonel Andrew Cliffe. 1. Leadership Contents. What is leadership? Leadership models. Personality & leadership. Teams & leadership. Strategic leadership. UK Leadership Centre. 2. What is leadership?.

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    1. Strategic Leadership MDWSC Georgia Nov/Dec 2011 Colonel Andrew Cliffe 1

    2. Leadership Contents What is leadership? Leadership models. Personality & leadership. Teams & leadership. Strategic leadership. UK Leadership Centre. 2

    3. What is leadership? “One of the most observed & least understood phenomena on earth” JamesBurns (1978). "A leader shapes and shares a vision which gives point to the work of others." Charles Handy (1992). "A leader takes people where they want to go. A great leader takes people where they don't necessarily want to go, but ought to be." Rosalynn Carter, US First Lady (b.1927) . "Be willing to make decisions. That's the most important quality in a good leader." General George S. Patton Jr. "As we look ahead into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others." Bill Gates. 3

    4. Leadership MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP Command Authority Discipline Power Influence 4

    5. Command, Leadership & Management Command Relationship? Leadership Management 5

    6. Command, Leadership & Management Command: Legally appointed position of authority. Leadership: Combination of example, persuasion & compulsion. Projection of personality & character to inspire a team to achieve the desired outcome. Visionary. Management: Allocation & control of resources (human, materiel and financial) to achieve objectives. Planning, organisation & execution of the business of Defence. 6

    7. “…Managers are necessary: Leaders are essential…. Leadership is of the spirit, compounded of personality & vision…… Management is of the mind, more a matter of accurate calculation, statistics, timetables & routine…” Field Marshall Bill Slim (1944) About People About Things 7

    8. Leadership Development Leadership is a skill. Some people have more natural talent, but… Skills can be developed through practise. What to practise & how? Leadership Models 8

    9. Leadership Models 9

    10. ... ... Evolution of Leadership theory The Great Man Theory Motivational Theory Trait Theory Universal Theories Jenkins 1947 Stogdill 1948 Goldbach 1985 Homer Asoka Confucius Plato Aristotle Machiavelli Ohio State Research 1950’s Michigan State University-R Likert 1961/67 Blake & Moulton ‘Managerial Grid’ 1964 Mayo’s Hawthorn Studies 1933 George Homans 1950 Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs 1954 McGregor’s X&Y Theory 1960 Fredrick Herzberg 1959/66 Chris Argyris1970 Thomas Carlyle 1850s Sir Francis Galton 1869 Servant leadership theory The Contextual/Behavioural Factor The Functional Approach The Situational Approach Power & Influence Theory Robert Greenleaf Stogdill R Tannenbaum & WH Schmidt19 58/73 VH Vroom & PW Yetton 1973 Hersey & Blanchard 60’s - 93 JRP French & BH Raven 1959 BM Bass 1960 A Edzoni 1961 JP Kotter 1982 Hersey & Blanchard 1985 John Adair Contingency Theory Transformational Theory Participative Leadership & Decision Making Theory Charismatic Leadership Theory Contemporary Thinking RJ House 1976/77 JM Burns 1978 BM Bass 80s-90s G Yukl 1970/80s F Fiedler 1970s 10

    11. Great Man Theory 11

    12. Trait Theory 12

    13. Trait Theory Integrity Vision Communications Decision-making Humility Innovation Professional knowledge Courage Sense of humour Intelligence Sensitivity Character Personality Charisma Shouting & waving your arms about 13

    14. Adair’s Functional Approach Task Context Team Individual Areas of need 14

    15. Goleman’s Leadership Styles Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic Pace-setting Coaching Crisis Change Heal rifts Get buy-in Quick results Improve performance Use the ‘style’ to meet the challenge 15

    16. Burn’s Transactional/Transformational Leadership Transactional leaders: BUY followers. Transformational leaders: INSPIRE followers. 16

    17. Personality & Leadership 17

    18. Personality & leadership The Five Factor Model: Neuroticism (sensitivity). Extraversion (expressive). Agreeableness. Openness to experience. Conscientiousness. Digman, 1990 18

    19. Personality & leadership Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Focus of attention & energy: EXTRAVERT – INTROVERT Source of information & perspective: SENSING – INTUITIVE Decision making: THINKING – FEELING Approach to life: JUDGING – PERCEIVING Dominant function. 19

    20. Personality & leadership Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ 20

    21. INTJ – ‘The Scientist’ • INTJs live in the world of ideas and strategic planning. They value intelligence, knowledge, and competence, and typically have high standards in these regards, which they continuously strive to fulfill. To a somewhat lesser extent, they have similar expectations of others. 21

    22. 360 Degree Reporting Boss You Peers Peers Subordinates 22

    23. Psychometric testing Things that you learn: More about yourself & what you need to improve. More about other people: They’re not just doing it to annoy you! Strengths & weaknesses in your team. What is happening when things go wrong: The Dark side! Reluctance amongst military. 23

    24. Teams & Leadership 24

    25. Team Psychometrics Belbin’s 8 Team Roles: Chairman: best use of resources. Shaper: sets objectives & priorities. Plant: new ideas & strategies. Company Worker: ideas & practical suggestions. Team Worker: communications & team spirit. Monitor-evaluator: analysis. Resource Investigator: outside the team. Completer: attention & urgency. 25

    26. Toxic Leadership “ Destructive leaders are focused on short-term mission accomplishment. They provide superiors with impressive articulate presentations and enthusiastic responses to missions. But they are unconcerned about, or oblivious to, staff or troop morale and/or climate. They are seen as self serving” Anon, Staff College Discussion 26

    27. Destructive Assent Situation: January 13 1982, a freezing-cold day. Air Florida 90 (‘Palm 90’), due out from Washington DC at 1415 hrs. Crew: Captain Larry Wheaton – SENIOR. 1st Officer Roger Pettit – JUNIOR. 27

    28. Destructive Assent Take-off check list commences Pettit: Air conditioning & pressurization? Wheaton: Set Pettit: Engine anti-ice? Wheaton: Off 1559 Cleared for take off & throttles open Pettit: ‘It’s real cold, real cold’ Wheaton: It’s spooled. Real cold, real cold. Pettit: God, look at that thing. That doesn’t seem right, does it? Uh, that’s not right. Wheaton: Yes, there’s 80 Pettit: Naw, I don’t think that’s right. Ah, maybe it is. Wheaton: 120 Pettit: I don’t know Wheaton: V1. (Lift off, but nose rises too quickly) Easy. V2 1601 Palm 90 crashes into bridge over Potomac: 78 killed, including four motorists on the 14th Street Bridge; 6 survivors 28

    29. Destructive Assent Take-off check list commences Pettit: Air conditioning & pressurization? Wheaton: Set Pettit: Engine anti-ice? Wheaton: Off 1559 Cleared for take off & throttles open Pettit: ‘It’s real cold, real cold’ Wheaton: It’s spooled. Real cold, real cold. Pettit: God, look at that thing. That doesn’t seem right, does it? Uh, that’s not right. Wheaton: Yes, there’s 80 Pettit: Naw, I don’t think that’s right. Ah, maybe it is. Wheaton: 120 Pettit: I don’t know Wheaton: V1. (Lift off, but nose rises too quickly) Easy. V2 1601 Palm 90 crashes into bridge over Potomac: 78 killed, including four motorists on the 14th Street Bridge; 6 survivors 29

    30. Constructive Dissent Winston Churchill (PM). General Brooke (Chair of UK Chiefs of Staff) 30

    31. Constructive Dissent Brooke on Churchill: ‘…genius mixed with an astonishing lack of vision – he is quite the most difficult man to work with…’ 31

    32. Constructive Dissent Churchill on Brooke: ‘When I hit the table & push my face towards him, what does he do? He hits the table harder & glares back at me!’ 32

    33. Emotional Intelligence “The capacity for recognising our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. Abilities distinct from but complementary to academic intelligence, the purely cognitive capacity measured by IQ (Intelligence).” 33

    34. Strategic Leadership 34

    35. Strategic/senior leadership What is the challenge? What changes? Why is ‘senior’ leadership important? 35

    36. Leader(ship) Development Responsibility for organizational success ? Specialist competence to deliver task success Strategic Operational Tactical 36

    37. Changing Environment – Changing Skills? Strategic Operational Tactical 37

    38. What changes? • Communication: from inward to upwards & outwards. Shape environment. Cross silo. • Uncertainty: increasing ambiguity & complexity. Timescales. • Risks: from physical to organisational. • Decision-making: increasing proportion of ethical decisions. Strategic leaders do not need to know all the answers – they need to ask the right questions. 38

    39. Strategic Leadership Theory: Vision • Understanding complexity. • Produce results. • A strong motive. • Develop a value-based vision. • Develop Policies, strategies & programmes for achieving the vision. • Engage in personal practises & behaviours that reflect the values that underlie the vision. M Sashkin, 1995, The Visionary Leader

    40. Strategic Leadership Theory • Providing Direction: • Purpose | Vision for whole organisation. • Getting Strategy & Policy right: • Strategic thinking. • Organise/Reorganise: • Making the organisation fit for purpose. • Release the Corporate Spirit: • Energy | morale | confidence | Esprit de Corps. • Relate the organisation to wider environment: • Allies, partners, stakeholders. • Develop today & tomorrow’s leaders: • Succession planning | long term view. John Adair – Effective Strategic Leadership 2002

    41. Leadership and Management Division Meeting the needs of strategic managers and leaders across defence. 39

    42. Leadership & Management Division Established in 2000. Three tasks: Develop a leadership Model. Prepare & issue a Leadership Book. Deliver a programme of courses. 40

    43. The Leadership Helix Model Integrity Vision Communication Professional Knowledge Decision Taking Innovation Focussed on Development Humility 41

    44. Defence Executive Leadership Programme Senior Responsible Owners Defence Senior Leaders Programme Defence Strategic Management Programme Defence Leadership Education Programme Through Life Capability Management Leadership & Management Development Programme Advanced Command & Staff Course Masters Programmes Course Pyramid 2/3/4* Board Member Executive Proj Tm Ldr (PTL) 1* Deputy PTL Strategic Intermediate Tm Member 42

    45. Through Life Development Higher Command & Staff Course 30 Offrs Brigadiers Advanced Command & Staff Course Lt Cols 350 Offrs Intermediate Command & Staff Course Majs 2000 Offrs Distributed & Just-In-Time Training RNC RMAS RAFC Officer Cadets 43

    46. The Effective Contemporary Leader Academic Intelligence Emotional Intelligence Cultural Intelligence 44

    47. Summary Leadership is widely studied. Commanders have to be both managers & leaders. Leadership is a skill & can be developed. Considered: leadership & personality. teams & leadership. Leadership challenges change as move up to strategic level. UK Leadership Centre. 45

    48. Strategic Leadership MDWSC Georgia Nov/Dec 2011 Colonel Andrew Cliffe 46