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  1. Semester 2 Final Review Part 1 Genetics, Biotechnology, Protein Synthesis and Evolution

  2. We’ve all heard of it, but … What is genetics? Genetics:the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. 

  3. Mendel’s experiments

  4. Mendel’s Principle Findings • Dominant and Recessive • Certain characteristics are dominant to others • The dominant trait will mask another (recessive) trait, preventing it’s expression • The recessive trait “disappears” for a generation

  5. Cross between varieties • The dominant trait • will mask another • (recessive) trait, • preventing • it’s expression

  6. Mendel’s Principle Findings • Segregation • For each trait, organisms have 2 genes • Each pea plant got one gene from each parent • Genes segregate from each other during egg or sperm formation (meiosis)

  7. Some terms … • Trait: characteristics of an organism pass from generation to generation. • Eye color • Hair color and type • Height • Temperament • Symptoms for genetic diseases

  8. Genotype • Tells you the genetic makeup of the organism • The genes the organism carries • Written using symbols • Each allele is represented by a letter • Tall = T dominant • Short = t recessive • Capital letter designates the dominant trait and lower case letter designates the recessive trait. • Capital letter is always written first.

  9. Homozygous • An individual which contains one allele for a genetic trait • TT-- homozygous dominant • tt -- homozygous recessive

  10. Heterozygous • An individual which contains different alleles for a genetic trait • Tt heterozygote

  11. Phenotype • What the organism looks like • Controlled by the genotype • TT---------- tall • Tt----------- tall • tt------------ short

  12. eye color gene Allele B (brown eyes) eye color gene Allele b (blue eyes) Paternal Maternal Example Phenotype This person would have brown eyes (Bb) Genotype

  13. Punnett squares • The probability the next generation will exhibit a certain trait can be shown with a punnett square. T T • The genotype of the mother is shown on the top of the square (TT) • The genotype of the father is shown on the side of the square (tt) • The various combinations of genes (genotypes) are shown in the squares. All of these offspring will be (T) Tall and carry the recessive (t) short allele. t t

  14. Punnett squares • What happens if you cross a heterozygous plant (Tt) with a short plant (tt)? Two of the four will be Heterozygous (Tall) and the other two will be homozygous recessive (short) This is a 1:1 ratio

  15. Monohybrid vs. Dihybrid • Monohybrid crosses are crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait. • Dihybrid crosses are crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits.

  16. Mendel and Dihybrid Crosses • Mendel studied dihybrid crosses. • He crossed a plant with yellowroundpeas with a plant with greenwrinkledpeas.

  17. Mendel and Dihybrid Crosses • Mendel began his experiments with purebred (homozygous) parent plants. RRYY x rryy • Remember each trait has 2 genes due to getting half your genes from mom and half from dad. • How many gamete options do you have for RRYY?? RY rryy? ry • These are the gametes from the “P” generation.

  18. Mendel and Dihybrid Crosses “P” generation:RRYY x rryy RRYY rryy

  19. Mendel and Dihybrid Crosses What is the genotypic ratio? 16 RrYy:0 anything else Phenotypic ratio? 16 Round Yellow: 0 anything else

  20. Mendel and Dihybrid Crosses He then crossed two “F1” organisms: RrYyx RrYy RrYy RrYy

  21. Mendel and Dihybrid Crosses What is the genotypic ratio for the F2 generation? 1 RRYY:2 RRYy: 2 RrYY: 4 RrYy: 1 rrYY: 2 Rryy: 2 rrYy: 1rryy: 1 RRyy

  22. Mendel and Dihybrid Crosses Phenotypic ratio for the F2 generation? 9:16 Round Yellow, 3:16 Round Green, 3:16 Wrinkled Yellow, 1:16 Wrinkled Green

  23. Mendel and Dihybrid Crosses 9:16 yellow and round, 3:16 green and round, 3:16 wrinkled and yellow, 1:16 wrinkled and green.

  24. Genetics Vocabulary Gene Law of Segregation Dominant Law of Independent Assortment Recessive Genotype: Homozygous Dominant P Generation Homozygous Recessive F1 Generation Heterozygous F2 Generation Phenotype Trait Punnett Square Allele Monohybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross