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Rural Economic & Enterprise Development: A framework for analysis & joint action Dhaka, Bangladesh 23 rd November, 2004. Junior Davis and Felicity Proctor Natural Resources Institute (UK) j.davis@gre.ac.uk. Workshop Objectives.

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slide1

Rural Economic & Enterprise Development: A framework for analysis & joint actionDhaka, Bangladesh 23rd November, 2004.

Junior Davis and Felicity Proctor

Natural Resources Institute (UK)

j.davis@gre.ac.uk

workshop objectives
Workshop Objectives

Present the Rural Economic and Enterprise Development (REED) Framework

Exchange relevant current and planned project and programme experience between practitioners and review in the light of the REED framework

Review the potential utility of the REED framework in the Bangladesh context

Consider options for follow up action research and learning in partnership with the NRI led programme

hoped for outputs
Hoped for Outputs
  • Better understanding of REED as a framework to support multi-stakeholder processes for rural economic development and poverty reduction
  • Shared learning between Bangladeshi programme practitioners set within rural and local economic development
  • Emergence of a learning platform/network on REED/LED to support ongoing and future programme interventions
  • Agreement on whether and how to take forward work on the validation of REED in the Bangladeshi context and possible future uptake
what is local economic development
What is Local Economic Development
  • Local economic development is about local people working together to achieve sustainable economic growth that brings economic benefits and quality of life improvements for all in the community. “Community” is here defined as a city, town, metropolitan area, or sub national region (World Bank, 2004).
research on local economic development highlights
Research on local economic development highlights:
  • Significant role played by extensive and established local economy clusters
  • Municipal/ local government plays a key role in impacting these economies
  • Constraints are often inadequate political decentralization and regressive urban planning regulatory frameworks
  • A purely "industrial" or “agricultural” focus excludes:
    • extensive livelihood linkages in the rural and urban economy,
    • governance aspects.
    • importance of extensive trade networks inter-connecting distinctive local economies both rural and urban
slide7

What is REED?

  • The Rural Economic and Enterprise Development is a framework based on the analysis of successes and experiences of programmes and projects by an international group of practitioners from different professional backgrounds and countries.
  • REED framework offers a flexible tool for joint analysis, planning, evaluation and learning among stakeholders concerned with rural economic and enterprise development.
  • It is an example of an holistic and spatial approach to local, rural and urban development.
slide8

The Evolution of REED

  • Joint donor initiative (GTZ, DFID, SDC, IFAD, CTA, FAO, WB) to overcome fragmentation
  • Framework developed based on success factors of operational experience from a diverse range of programmes (Berlin workshop November 2002)
  • This was developed using the Learning Wheel methodology.
slide9

1. An enabling environment that provides for an attractive investment climate and dynamic entrepreneurship

10. Ongoing learning from success and failures by all stakeholders

2. Effective mechanisms and structures that address local needs

9.Active participation and ownership of development processes by well linked stakeholders

3. Active private sector institutions and links

Fostering

Rural Economic and EnterpriseDevelopment

8. Local organisation, groups and associations (representing the poor) as building blocks

4. Functioning and effective infrastructure (hard and soft)

5. Access to integrated and open markets

7. Adaptive management capacity and entrepreneurial competence within business and enterprises

6. Access to effective and efficient support services and resources

slide10

Using REED: in the planning process

  • Use of the framework in the planning process for poverty oriented LED in rural and urban areas
  • As a checklist in the planning process
  • As a tool to define priorities with stakeholders and decision makers
  • As a guideline in participatory planning with stakeholders
  • As a tool for joint planning with different projects and donors
  • As resource material for the REED/LED planning process
slide11

Using REED: in prioritising interventions

  • Using the framework as a tool for selecting amongst intervention priorities (gateway function)
  • For example:
  • local and regional economic development
  • promotion of value chains
  • training and human resource development
  • rural and urban business development services
  • microfinance
  • ....
slide12

Using REED: in monitoring & evaluation

  • Use the framework for monitoring and evaluation:
  • As a guideline to establish a M & E System
  • As a tool for discussions with decision makers on changes observed
  • As a tool for joint evaluation of different projects in the same region
  • To help define indicators for results and impacts on different levels
  • As a tool to establish benchmarks for regions and countries
slide13

The Cornerstones of Rural Economic and Enterprise Development framework

  • Each cornerstone contains
  • The aim of a cornerstone in the overall context of REED/LED
  • Core elements of the cornerstone
  • Key strategies to achieve best results
  • Instruments and means of implementation
  • Links to websites with information, experiences and best practices
slide14

The key elements of the ten REED Cornerstones

  • Cornerstone 1. An enabling environment for an attractive investment climate and entrepreneurship.
    • Good governance, improved reformed regulation, taxation, licensing, remove tariff and non-tariff barriers
  • Cornerstone 2. Effective mechanisms and structures that address local needs.
    • Effective decentralisation, empowerment of communities
  • Cornerstone 3. Effective private sector institutions & links
    • Build capacity of private BDS, enhance organisational capacity, create local business networks
the key elements of the ten reed cornerstones
The key elements of the ten REED Cornerstones
  • Cornerstone 4. Functioning and effective infrastructure (hard and soft).
    • Identify infrastructure needs of rural SMEs, Providing & maintaining required infrastructure, integrating into wider systems, quality dimensions
  • Cornerstone 5. Access to integrated and effectively functioning markets.
    • Access to markets, transparency & stability of markets, market chain integration & management, market development
  • Cornerstone 6. Access to effective and efficient support services and resources.
    • Provide information & specialised services, Develop market for service provision, provide contracted business services, supply inputs, access to finance & R&D facilities
slide16

The key elements of the ten REED Cornerstones

  • Cornerstone 7. Adaptive management capacity and entrepreneurial competence within business and enterprises.
    • Management & organisation, production & service generation, financing, marketing, networking
  • Cornerstone 8. Local organisations, groups and associations (representing the poor) as building blocks.
    • Understand organisational arrangements, motivate self-mobilisation, facilitate organisational development, ensure organisational graduation to higher and appropriate levels of formalisation
the key elements of the ten reed cornerstones1
The key elements of the ten REED Cornerstones
  • Cornerstone 9. Active participation in and ownership of joint learning processes by well-linked stakeholders.
    • Identifying stakeholders, building stakeholder convergence, creating structured platforms & for a for negotiations, creating networks for learning
  • Cornerstone 10. Ongoing learning from success and failure by all stakeholders
    • Create platforms to share and review information, agree vision and M&E framework, creating an effective knowledge management system
slide19

Scenario for using the REED framework in an LED setting (l)

The following steps are proposed:

l. Define geographical area (e.g., district, province),

II. The framework could be applied to analyse the existing situation in that area and identify potential areas of improvement.

III. Cornerstones, their interdependencies, strengths and gaps could be identified by detailed analysis and self-assessment.

slide20

Scenario for using the REED framework in an LED setting (ll)

  • IV. The gaps or shortcomings blocking the exploitation of the economic potential of the region should be analysed in detail and prioritised by their negative effects on the system.
  • Factors with the greatest negative impact should be addressed through intervention.
  • VI. Once the possible interventions are identified, implementation strategies can be planned and the roles of the different actors and their mutual expectations can be clarified.
how reed can add value
How REED can add value
  • Thinking about economic and livelihood strategies to compliment other spatial planning and management efforts is new. Critical linkages which combine to direct resources and interventions strategically and spatially need to be considered.
  • Public administrations should conceptualize REED/LED strategies in a trans-locational (village, sm. towns, cities) perspective, including its institutional setting and prioritise according to cost effectiveness and socio-economic impact.
  • REED provides a common platform and mechanism to link policy, procedures and interventions from a multidisciplinary perspective.
slide22

NRI Action research and shared learning on REED

  • The research aims to develop further the conceptual framework and project tool for the fostering of rural economic and enterprise development in Bangladesh andSouth Africa
  • In pursuit of this, the project aims to:
    • Apply the REED framework and share emerging practice on pro-poor public policy and institutional support at local and national government levels specifically in South Africa and Bangladesh.
    • Refine and develop the conceptual framework so that it can address gaps in the framework
slide23

Approach

  • Collaboration with In-country partners
  • Collaboration with UK and EU partners
  • Consultation with key stakeholders
  • Policy and Institutional focus
  • Policy dialogue
slide24

Methodological issues

  • Study site selection criteria
  • Unit of analysis
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Research
methodologies and tools

Issue(s)/Purpose

Potential Methodological Tool(s)

Assessment of community physical/natural assets

Participatory Resource Mapping

Secondary data on economy, employment and demography

Exploration of local resources and development conditions

Transect walks

Focus group discussions

Understanding of different SME and MSME activities

Focus group discussions

Gaining in-depth knowledge of specific issues, structures and organizations

Key informant discussions

In-depth interviews and Institutional audits

Following up and illustrating specific issues

Case studies – semi structured interviews

Stakeholder perceptions, attitudes, meanings and values (social assets)

Focus group workshops semi-structured interviews

Impact of sectoral policy frameworks on LED

Empirical analysis of secondary data

Case studies – SAM/PAM

Information on the factors that constrain poor’s access to employment and SME development.

HH survey/ secondary data/ questionnaire/ Enterprise questionnaire

Identification of needs for the development of the LED

Focus group discussions, Key informant discussion, enterprise QNR

Methodologies and tools
slide26

Policy uptake and dissemination

  • Stakeholder involvement and shared learning platform at country-level
  • Input into DFID, World Bank and EU programme and investment processes
  • Published Outputs and Website
  • Networking
  • Seminars and Workshops
slide27

Inception Phase

  • Literature Review
  • Identification of in-country research partners
  • Interactive consultation with policy-makers and in-country stakeholders
  • Joint planning with in-country partners, GTZ, UN-FAO etc.
  • Selection of case-study sites/ regions
  • Develop Papers for WB local economic development conference in Washington and forthcoming GTZ conference in Sri Lanka
  • Initial workshops and seminars
proposed in country activities l
Proposed in-country activities l

Research activities in each study area:

  • A study which assesses the institutional and policy context for REED/LED in each country
  • A review of relevant literature and secondary data, and dialogue with key stakeholders.
  • A full inventory of the existing data on REED/LED
  • Reach agreement with partners on study/project location
  • Baseline (community level) survey (case studies) to identify the range of REED/LED activity in which populations are engaged; develop a typology of REED/LED activities and pro-poor LED orientation cross-sectorally
  • Extend this initial survey to other areas in the same country
proposed in country activities il
Proposed in-country activities Il
  • The design, testing and implementation of a pilot of the Rural Economic and Enterprise Development framework in Bangladesh and South Africa.
knowledge to be gained
Knowledge to be gained
  • Better understanding of current state of knowledge relating to REED/LED in South Africa and Bangladesh
  • Improved understanding of primary and secondary stakeholder perceptions of REED/LED and its growth potential,
  • Qualitative and quantitative information on types of REED/LED, and their importance to the poor
  • Information on the impact of sectoral policy frameworks on pro-poor LED (housing etc)
  • Qualitative and quantitative information on the factors that constrain people’s access to employment and SME development.
thanks for your attention
Thanks for your attention!

The reports this presentation is based on are available at:

The Natural Resources Institute website

http://www.nri.org/projects/reed

taking the reed research forward
Taking the REED research forward
  • Time frame: project due to complete research in January 2006
  • Identify partners (NGO, government, academia, donor etc)
  • Identify opportunities for joint collaboration with existing programmes/ project at macro, micro or meso levels.
  • Efforts should build on practical fieldwork & existing data/ case study material
  • Launch in-country REED/LED research in Bangladesh through an inception workshop February 2005
  • Participate in co-financed NRI-GTZ REED international conference, Sri Lanka June 2005
  • Invite current workshop participants to lessons learned workshop/event at the end of the in-country research November 2005
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