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Where do our ideas come from?. Make Your Own Observations. Take 10 minutes to observe people outside Come up with 3 research questions Write down the 3 questions on a piece of paper Write down the observation that led to these question OBSERVATION QUESTION. Make Your Own Observations.

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make your own observations
Make Your Own Observations
  • Take 10 minutes to observe people outside
  • Come up with 3 research questions
  • Write down the 3 questions on a piece of paper
  • Write down the observation that led to these question

OBSERVATION QUESTION

make your own observations1
Make Your Own Observations
  • What did you come up with?

OBSERVATION QUESTION

what s next
What's next?
  • Plausibility stage
    • Is the idea worthy of actual testing?
  • Acceptability stage
    • Mold the plausible idea into a working hypothesis
negative correlation2
Negative Correlation

.

.

.

r = - .85

.

.

zero correlation1
Zero Correlation

.

.

.

.

.

r = .00

correlation coefficient
Correlation Coefficient
  • The sign of a correlation (+ or -) only tells you the direction of the relationship
  • The value of the correlation only tells you about the size of the relationship (i.e., how close the scores are to the regression line)
  • Correlations and cause and effect
slide22
Which is a bigger effect?

r = .40 or r = -.40

How are they different?

practice
Practice
  • Do you think the following variables are positively, negatively or uncorrelated to each other?
  • Alcohol consumption & Driving skills
  • Miles of running a day & speed in a foot race
  • Height & GPA
  • Forearm length & foot length
practice1
Practice
  • 1) Complete Questionnaire #1
  • Do you like going to art museums?
  • Do you talk to a lot of different people at parties?
  • What time did you wake up this morning (the hour)?
big five inventory
Big-Five Inventory
  • Big-Five Inventory
slide29
E

1, 11, 16, 26, 36 R 6, 21, 31

A

7, 17, 22, 32, 42 R 2,12, 27, 37

C

3, 13, 28, 33, 38 R 8, 18, 23, 43

N

4, 14, 19, 29, 39 R 9, 24, 34

O

5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 44 R 35, 41

R

1 = 5

2 = 4

3 = 3

4 = 2

5 = 1

agreeableness
Agreeableness

Trust

Straightforwardness

Altruism

Compliance

Modesty

Tender-mindedness

Obi-Wan Kenobi -- This loyal, kind, and honorable young Jedi is a good man.

Emperor Palpatine -- An evil, power hungry tyrant, he is manipulative, evil, and ruthless.

extraversion
Extraversion

Warmth

Gregariousness

Assertiveness

Activity

Excitement seeking

Positive emotions

Lando Calrissian -- An energetic, sociable man. He is adventure seeking, talkative, and socially skilled.

Wampas -- reclusive creatures of the ice planet Hoth. They are rarely seen & generally shy, leading a solitary existence

conscientiousness
Competence

Order

Dutifulness

Achievement striving

Self-discipline

Deliberation

Conscientiousness

Admiral Ackbar -- This rebel Admiral is renowned for his great powers of organization, responsibility, and administrative abilities. He is individual who can be relied upon.

Han Solo -- This disheveled and scruffy smuggler leads a reckless and haphazard life, with little respect for rules and procedures.

neuroticism
Neuroticism

Anxiety

Angry hostility

Depression

Self-consciousness

Impulsiveness

Vulnerability

Princess Leia -- A confident & calm individual who does not crack under pressure (e.g.,. when being threatened by Lord Vader). She is brave and relaxed, even when in great danger (e.g., when disguising herself as a bounty hunter to gain access to Jabba the Hutt’s palace).

Tusken warriors -- These inhabitants of Tatooine are unpredictable, temperamental, and excitable, and known to be especially moody.

openness to experience
Openness to Experience

Fantasy

Aesthetics

Feelings

Actions

Ideas

Values

Yoda -- This wise, philosophical, and thoughtful Jedi master challenges the establishment, encouraging his pupils to unlearn what they have learned and see the world in novel, creative ways.

C-3PO -- This droid versed in political protocol of thousands of cultures is governed by rules and prefers not to meddle with the ways and traditions of his hosts.

the big five
The Big Five
  • Also known as the Five-Factor Model
  • Extraversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Neuroticism
  • Openness to Experience
  • OCEAN
slide36
Next

Collect data

Enter data

Analyze data

=CORREL(Array1, Array2)

=CORREL (A2:A9, G2:G9)

observational research
Observational Research
  • Steps
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • What do you want to do? What is your hypothesis?
  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations
      • Will you use a videotape, questionnaire, EAR, etc.?
  • 3) Collect your data
      • Just do it!
  • 4) Create a coding system
      • How will you quantify your data?
  • 5) Analyze your data
      • What do the data tell you?
observational research1
Observational Research
  • Types of Observational Research
  • Laboratory Research
  • Internet Research
  • Naturalistic Research
observational research in the laboratory
Observational Research in the Laboratory
  • Pros:
  • Controlled environment
  • Can control for extraneous variables (random assignment)
  • Cons:
  • Not realistic
outline
Outline
  • Observational Research in the Laboratory
  • 1) Examples of observational lab research
  • 2) P II: Single behavior studies
  • 3) P III: Multiple behavior studies
observational research2
Observational Research
  • Steps
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • What do you want to do? What is your hypothesis?
  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations
      • Will you use a videotape, questionnaire, EAR, etc.?
  • 3) Collect your data
      • Just do it!
  • 4) Create a coding system
      • How will you quantify your data?
  • 5) Analyze your data
      • What do the data tell you?
slide44
During interpersonal interactions how does the behavior of a person affect the behavior of another person?
interpersonal theory
Interpersonal Theory
  • Leary’s complementarity
    • Interpersonal behaviors tend to initiate or invite reciprocal interpersonal behaviors from the “other” person in the interaction
  • Act the same on “warmth”
    • Warmth encourages warmth
    • Coldness encourages coldness
  • Act the opposite on “dominance”
    • Dominance encourages submission
    • Submission encourages dominance
method
Method
  • Participates
    • 79 males; 79 females
tasks
Tasks
  • Each participant interacted in three different situations with an opposite sex stranger
coding behaviors
Coding Behaviors
  • For each interaction, social behaviors were coded by four different judges
  • Example: Dominance behaviors
    • “Expresses warmth”
    • “Exhibits social skills”
    • “Expresses criticism”
    • “Expresses hostility”
  • Example: Warmth behaviors
    • “Tries to control the interaction”
    • “Speaks in a loud voice”
    • “Seeks reassurance”
    • “Expresses insecurity”
results
Results
  • Warmth

r = .45

  • Dominance

r = -.39

observational research3
Observational Research
  • Steps
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • I wonder how our behaviors affect the behaviors of our interaction partners
  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations
      • I will videotape these behaviors
  • 3) Collect your data
      • Participants came into a lab
  • 4) Create a coding system
      • I will use the RBQ
  • 5) Analyze your data
project ii single behavioral observations
Project II – Single behavioral observations
  • Relating questionnaires to single behavioral observations in the lab.
slide58
Say
  • “I am going out now, I won’t be back all day. If anyone comes by, just tell them I’m not here”
  • Happy
  • Sad
  • Mad
  • How good of an actor is this person?
    • Rate 1-10 (1= bad actor; 10= great actor)
self monitoring
Self-Monitoring
  • How much do you “monitor” your social setting and alter your behaviors accordingly
  • High SM
    • Monitor every situation
    • Look for cues how to act, alter behavior
  • Low SM
    • Consistent behavior regardless of situation
self monitoring1
Self-Monitoring
  • Related to smoking in youths
  • Specifically, youths who think it is normal to smoke and are high SM are 3.5 times more likely to smoke!
self monitoring2
Self-Monitoring
  • Other findings (just for fun):
  • Video tapped group discussion
  • High SM interview better for jobs
  • High SM more likely to lie to go on dates
  • High SM pleasure self more often

Current question: Are high self-monitors better actors?

current study
Current study
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • I wonder what high SM are better actors?
  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations
      • I think I will code people acting in the class room and have them self-report their SM
  • 3) Collect your data
      • Just do it!
  • 4) Create a coding system
      • We used a simple one-item code of “acting”
  • 5) Analyze the data!
current study1
Current study
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • I wonder what high SM are better actors?
  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations
      • I think I will code people acting in the class room and have them self-report their SM
  • 3) Collect your data
      • Just do it!
  • 4) Create a coding system
      • We used a simple one-item code of “acting”
  • 5) Analyze your data
      • What did the data tell us?
      • Told us if SM was related to acting
perceiving others
Perceiving Others
  • Am I:
  • Extraverted?
  • Agreeable?
  • Conscientious?
  • Open to experience?
  • Neurotic?
  • A drug user?
perceiving others1
Perceiving Others
  • Why do you think that?
slide69
YOU

ME

slide71
Talkative

YOU

ME

Hand gestures

slide72
Assertive

Talkative

YOU

ME

Hand gestures

Energetic

Sociable

slide73
What behaviors does an extravert tend to express?

Assertive

Talkative

ME

Hand gestures

Energetic

Sociable

how can we examine this issue
How can we examine this issue?
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?
how can we examine this issue1
How can we examine this issue?
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?
  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations
how can we examine this issue2
How can we examine this issue?
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?
  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations
      • I think I will code people acting in an artificial setting and have people rate the behaviors they see
how can we examine this issue3
How can we examine this issue?
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?
  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations
      • I think I will code people acting in an artificial setting and have people rate the behaviors they see
  • 3) Collect your data
      • Just do it!
procedure
Procedure
  • Watch three participants answer several questions
  • Obtain each participants BFI scores
how can we examine this issue4
How can we examine this issue?
  • 1) Limit your observations
      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?
  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations
      • I think I will code people acting in an artificial setting and have people rate the behaviors they see
  • 3) Collect your data
      • Just do it!
how many behaviors do you need to code
How many behaviors do you need to code?
  • These previous examples coded many behaviors
  • Pro:
    • Very rich data
    • Good if your not 100% sure what to expect
  • Con
    • Takes a long time
    • Can sometimes produce confusing results
  • Sometimes – if you have a specific question –you might only need to code a single behavior
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