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Extracellular Components and Connections B etween C ells H elp C oordinate Cellular A ctivities. Kate Rowe, Kylina John, Jacqueline Enriquez. Content:. Cell Walls of Plants Intercellular Junctions of Plant Cells ECM of Animal Cells Intercellular Junctions of Animal Cells.

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extracellular components and connections b etween c ells h elp c oordinate cellular a ctivities

Extracellular Components and Connections Between Cells Help Coordinate Cellular Activities

Kate Rowe, Kylina John, Jacqueline Enriquez

content
Content:
  • Cell Walls of Plants
  • Intercellular Junctions of Plant Cells
  • ECM of Animal Cells
  • Intercellular Junctions of Animal Cells
how the cell wall helps coordinate cellular activity
How the cell wall helps coordinate cellular activity
  • Protects the plant cell
  • Maintains its shape
  • Prevents excessive uptake of water
break down of cell wall
Break Down of Cell Wall
  • Primary Cell Wall thin and flexible
  • Middle Lamella sticky, thin layer of pectins
  • Secondary Cell Wall strong durable matrix
cell walls of plants
Cell Walls of Plants

Secondary Cell Wall

Cell Membrane

Primary Cell Wall

Middle Lamella

slide6

Intercellular Junctions in Plants

Plasmodesmata:

channels in which plant cell walls are perforated with.

Functions of plasmodesmata include:

-Allowing cytosol to pass through, which connects cells to unify plant into one living thing.

-Water and small solutes pass from cell to cell.

-Macromolecules pass through and are transported on cytoskeleton.

what is the extracellular matrix ecm
What is the extracellular matrix (ECM)?
  • Something that is made by virtually all multi-cellular organisms.
  • Elaborate covering outside animal cell membranes, occupying the space between cells. It is composed of:
    • Collagen, proteoglycans, and fibronectin, which the cell secretes.
    • Different from the plant extracellular matrix, which is composed of cellulose.
  • Many ECM components are involved in cell-to-cell interactions.
components of the ecm
Components of the ECM
  • Collagen
    • Most abundant glycoprotein (about half of the total protein in the body).
    • Forms strong fibers outside of the cell.
      • Fibers are embedded in a network made of proteoglycans.
  • Proteoglycans
    • Collagen fibers are embedded in a network made from proteoglycans.
    • Are another class of glycoproteins that consists of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains covalently attached.
    • Large complexes can form when hundreds of proteoglycans become non-covalently attached to a single long polysaccharide molecule.
components cont
Components (cont.)
  • Fibronectin
    • Glycoprotein that attaches the ECM to the cell itself.
    • Binds to cell surface receptors called integrins, which are built into the plasma membrane of the cell.
  • Integrins
    • Cell surface receptor that connects to fibronectin, which attaches to the ECM
    • Span the membrane and bind on their cytoplasmic side to associated proteins attached to microfilaments of the cytoskeleton.
    • Transmit’s changes between the ECM and the cytoskeleton – it integrates changes occurring outside and inside the cell.
slide11

Polysaccharide

molecule

Proteoglycan

complex

Collagen

EXTRACELLULAR FLUID

Carbo-

hydrates

Fibronectin

Core

protein

Integrins

Proteoglycan

molecule

Plasma

membrane

Proteoglycan complex

CYTOPLASM

Micro-

filaments

Fig. 6-30

ecm effect on behavior
ECM Effect on Behavior
  • By communicating with a cell through integrins, the ECM can regulate a cell’s behavior.
  • ECM can influence the activity of genes in the nucleus.
    • Speculated that information probably reaches the nucleus by a combination of chemical and mechanical signaling pathways.
      • Mechanical includes fibronectin, integrins, and microfilaments of the cytoskeleton.
      • The cytoskeleton may then trigger chemical signaling pathways inside the cell, leading to changes in the proteins being made by the cell and therefore in its function.
  • The ECM may help coordinate the behavior of all the cells within that tissue.
    • Direct connections (intercellular junctions) between cells also function in this coordination.
intercellular junctions in animal cells
Intercellular Junctions in Animal Cells
  • Tight Junctions: Specific proteins bind cell membranes which are pressed against each other.
    • Function: Tight Junctions prevent extracellular fluid from leaking across epithelial cells.
intercellular junctions in animal cells1
Intercellular Junctions in Animal Cells
  • Desmonsomes: also known as “anchoring junctions,” desmonsomes are like rivets that fasten cells together.
    • Desmonsomes are anchored to the cytoplasm by filaments made of keratin proteins.
intercellular junctions in animal cells2
Intercellular Junctions in Animal Cells
  • Gap Junctions: also known as “communicating junctions,” gap junctions act as cytoplasmic channels between cells.
    • Function: Each pore is surrounded by membrane proteins which allow ions, sugars, amino acids, and other things cells need to pass from cell to cell.