slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Thin Film Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage Materials for Solar Energy Application PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Thin Film Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage Materials for Solar Energy Application

play fullscreen
1 / 20
Download Presentation

Thin Film Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage Materials for Solar Energy Application - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

oksana
276 Views
Download Presentation

Thin Film Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage Materials for Solar Energy Application

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Thin Film Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage Materials for Solar Energy Application Alex Ignatiev1,2, Ainur Issova2, Mukhtar Eleuov2 1 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5004 2 Institute for Physics and Technology Almaty, Kazakhstan Almaty, 2011

  2. Solar Energy Utilization • Sunlight Required • Energy Storage Needed • for Nighttime and Cloudy Operation • Store Energy in Hydrogen.. • Electrolyze Water • Utilize Hydrogen Fuel Efficiently

  3. Hydrogen Storage Options • Liquid • Cold – 22K • 5 wt% - Adequate • EXPENSIVE….. • Gas • High Pressure- 200-500 bar • 2-3 wt% - Too Little Hydrogen • High Pressure Danger • Hydrides • ~ 1 wt% - Too Little Hydrogen in Cycle

  4. Volume for Storage of 5 kg H2 in Different States (Equivalent to 20 L Gasoline) • No Effective way of Storing Hydrogen….. • Polymer Nanostructures…. ??

  5. Nanostructured Polymers • Polyanaline Nanotubes • Conducting Polymers • Nanotube pores • High surface area Polyaniline Nanotubes

  6. Polyaniline (PANI) Charge & Discharge • Charge at 300psi for 2 hours • Multiple Charge – Discharge Cycles • Mass Spectrometer Read-out • PANI  2.5-3 wt% H2 Uptake • Tested to 12+ Cycles-no deg • Good Hydrogen Storage and Cycling

  7. Volume for Storage of 5 kg H2 in Different States (Equivalent to 20 L Gasoline) Polyaniline Polyaniline - Promising Hydrogen Storage System

  8. Efficient Use of Hydrogen Fuel • Hydrogen for Transportation • Internal Combustion Engine • Not Use – Explosive Reaction • Still form NOx • Use Fuel Cell • Electrochemical Reaction • OK - No NOx formed….. • Only WATER….

  9. What is a Fuel Cell? A device that generates electricity by combining fuel and oxygen in an electrochemical reaction. 2e- H2O H2 Fuel Anode O2- O2- Electrolyte O2- Cathode 2e- Oxidant 1/2O2 • Advantages • High energy conversion efficiency • Minimal environmental impact • Stackable to reach very high power output • Reduced noise level

  10. But, High Efficiency > 60% Solid Oxide Fuel Cell • Hydrogen and oxygen reactants • ZrO3 electrolyte • Nickel anode • Operating temperature is 900-1000°C • Encapsulation materials challenges • High materials costs • High market cost • How to Reduce market cost …. ??

  11. Apply Thin Film Materials Expertise to SOFC Challenges • Develop New Design: Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell • Thin Film Heterostructure Design • - Thin electrolyte- lower temperature operation • - Atomically ordered films/interfaces- lower resistance • Microelectronics Processing - Economies of Scale • Lower Fabrication Cost • Smaller Size • Lower Cost

  12. Thin Film SOFC Heterostructure Growth • Thin Film Atomically Ordered YSZ Electrolyte • Reduce Internal Defects • Reduce Interface Defects • Pulsed Laser Deposition of Epitaxial YSZ Film • on Crystalline Nickel Foil Substrate Epitaxial Growth

  13. Fuel Nickel Anode ~20m thick Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Thin Film Electrolyte ~ 0.1 - 1 m thick Porous LaSrCoO3 Cathode ~ 1 m thick Oxygen/Air Thin Film Heterostructure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Total Cell Thickness ~ 20-25 mm thick Ni Foil Anode NOT Porous

  14. Ni Porosity - Microelectronics Photolithography / Etching • Electrochemically Etched Nickel Anode • 60 m Etched Pores • Nickel Side Electro-etch

  15. Thin Film Micro SOFC TFSOFC I vs. V as a Function of Temperature Hydrogen / Air - Polycrystalline Single Cell

  16. Thin Film Heterostructure SOFC Advancement • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Have Nickel Anodes • Nickel Excellent Catalyst for Hydrocarbon Reduction • BUT…….‘Coking’ at High Temperatures…. > 600 C • However… Micro Fuel Cell Operates at 500 C – NO Coking…! • Hydrocarbon Fuel Operation at ~60% Efficiency…. • Methane/Methanol • Ethane/Ethanol

  17. Thin Film Fuel Cell Stack • Require ~ 100V to 200V Operation • Series Connection of Cell Elements • Interconnect Required • Stack Individual Cells Together in Series • Work in Collaboration with Institute for Physics and Technology, Almaty • Advance Technology • Finalize Product • Technology Transfer • Economic Growth

  18. Thin Film Fuel Cell Stack Components Cell Element Fuel Flow Interconnect Oxidant Flow

  19. Thin Film Heterostructure SOFC Advancement Fuel Cell Stack Design (In Progress) cathode electrolyte anode Micro-patterned Interconnect TFSOFC Fuel flow Oxidant flow Projected > 5W/cm3 at ~500oC

  20. Distributed Energy Automotive Energy Summary • A New Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design • Efficient, Clean, Compact and Cost Efficient • Low Temperature Operation • Direct Use of Hydrocarbon Fuel • Natural Gas • Hydrogen from Dissociation of Water…???? • Strategy for Efficient, Clean Electrical Energy Generation