Strategies for Reading in Content Areas. Activating Prior Knowledge. Relate what we are reading to something we already know Often don’t think what they already know is important May not have any background knowledge—so teacher must build it Use procedure before, during, & after reading
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Activating Prior Knowledge • Relate what we are reading to something we already know • Often don’t think what they already know is important • May not have any background knowledge—so teacher must build it • Use procedure before, during, & after reading • Materials to support strategy • RAN Preview Guide—Anticipation Guide • K-W-H-L Heart Strategy • Graphic organizers SQ3R • Cornell Notes Go Chart
Previewing & Using Text Structure • Look at title, subtitles, graphic support, margin information, embolden words to determine what information lies ahead • Look for problem and solution in science/social studies texts • Look for important details that support the questions posed by reader • Use before and during reading • Materials to support strategy • Nonfiction features activities • Problem/Solution • Chain of Events
Setting a Purpose Activity • Read The House and circle with your pencil whatever you think is important • Read The House again and use a green highlighter to mark places in the text a robber would find important. • Read The House again and use a blue highlighter to mark places in the text a prospective home buyer would find important • What did you notice about the 3 times you marked the text? Which time was the hardest?
Setting a Purpose for Reading • Set very specific purposes for reading • Begin by modeling procedure and teacher setting purpose • Move toward having students set purpose or read more than once to fulfill different purposes • Read to get information, solve a problem, perform a task • Use before and during reading • Materials to support strategy: • Graphic organizer to record purposes • Anticipation guide
Adjusting the Rate of Reading • Adjust rate of reading as purpose changes • Introduce this idea and model • Choose materials that are both easy and difficult to model and practice the need to vary the rate • Use before and during reading • Materials to support strategy • Watch Your Reading Speed • Café Strategy
Predicting Ideas and Events • Use before and during reading • Enhance by activating prior knowledge & previewing and utilizing text structure • Materials to support strategy • Strategic Strategies • Precise Predictions • Plenty of Predictions
Mental Imagery • Think about pictures and illustrations as you read • Use pictures to help you remember • Make connections between the visuals and the text • Make pictures in your mind • Use before, during, & after reading • Materials to support strategy • Talking Drawings • Sketching Through the Text
Use Cueing System Effectively • Figure out unknown words using phonics and meaning cues • Figure out and understand unknown concepts • Use during reading • Materials to support strategy • Word attack strategies & bookmarks • Fix-up Strategies
Employ Vocabulary Techniques • Utilize a variety of methods to unlock the meaning of unfamiliar words • Use multiple forms of context—effective vocabulary learning occurs in context • Use graphic information • Access external sources for word meaning • Use before, during & after reading • Materials to support strategy • Types of Context • Oh My Word! • Word Wrap • Inside Information • Defining Depictions • Ask a Word
Connect Text to Experience • Ask questions such as these: • Does this sound familiar? • What does this remind you of? • What have you already read about this? • Have you seen a video/TV show on this topic? • Relate reading to actual or vicariously acquired experiences • Before, during and after reading • Materials to support strategy • RAN Strategy • Double Entry Journal • Text to self, text, world connections
Monitor Comprehension • Model comprehension strategies • Monitor comprehension by stopping at intervals and asking if it makes sense • Use fix-up strategies to deal with comprehension obstacles • Materials to support strategy • Clicks & Clunks • Fix-Up Strategies to Repair Clunks • Flow Chart • Concept Maps • Jigsaw • Power Notes
Check for Understanding • Stop periodically and reflect on understanding • Confirm that purpose(s) for reading is being or has been met • Summarize or paraphrase important points and details • Use during and after reading • Materials to support strategy • Paraphrasing • Summarizing • VIPs
Teach Reading Strategies • Provide direct instruction of sufficient length and duration to provide opportunities for developing competence and automaticity • Model the skill or strategy • Provide opportunities for guided and independent practice • Provide positive feedback as students put strategies into practice • Give opportunities to use newly learned skills • Provide periodic reviews and extensions • Show how strategies can be combined, i.e., how previewing the text can help students set a purpose and select a pace for reading • Give opportunities to practice strategies with a variety of texts
Resources • AdLIT.org • Comprehension Toolkit, Goudvis & Harvey • Do I Really Have to Teach Reading?, Cris Tovani • I Read It But I Don’t Get It, Cris Tovani • Florida Center for Reading Research, www.fcrr.org/ • firstname.lastname@example.org • Read,Write,Think.com • Revisit, Reflect, Retell-Strategies for Improving Reading Comprehension, Linda Hoyt • Strategies That Work, Goudvis & Harvey • Subjects Matter-Every Teacher’s Guide to Content-Area Reading, Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman • Thinkport.org, sponsored by Maryland Public Television & Johns Hopkins University Center for Technology in Education