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Special Focus Workshop “Towards 10 ps single soft photon detectors” 2013 IEEE NSS/MIC/RTSD Seoul Sunday Oct 27, 2013. A very successful soft photon detector: the Photomultiplier (1934). ‘good’ quantum efficiency rather fast low noise @ high gain: very sensitive

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Special Focus Workshop

“Towards 10 ps single soft photon detectors”

2013 IEEE NSS/MIC/RTSD Seoul

Sunday Oct 27, 2013

slide2

A very successful soft photon detector: the Photomultiplier (1934)

  • ‘good’ quantum efficiency
  • rather fast
  • low noise @ high gain: very sensitive
  • little dark current, no bias current
  • radiation hard
  • quite linear
  • voluminous & heavy
  • no position resolution
  • expensive
  • quite radioactive
  • can’t stand B fields

Amplification by multiplication: low noise!

slide4

Photo Diode

Avalanche Photo Diode APD

Single Photon Avalanche Diode SPAD

GeigerMode Avalanche Photodiode GM-APD

Digital Photo Counters

The Silicon PhotoMultiplier: SiPM

slide5

Si-PMs are now in the focus:

Efficiency: potentially 100 %

but: pixelizing reduces efficiency (borders)

Flat, thin, light, cheap

Capable to stand strong B-field

Noise, afterpulsing, recovery time

Best possible time resolution……?

slide6

Use a MicroChannelPlate MCP?

MCP (in

vacuum)

John Vallerga: TimePix + MCPs

We do not know how to make MEMS made MCPs.

Problems: aspect ratio of holes, ion back flow, acceptance

Quantum Limited Imaging Detectors, RIT 2009, John Vallerga, jvv@ssl.berkeley.edu

slide7

The transmission dynode: ultra thin (20 - 100 nm) layers

diamond

SiNitride (Si3N4) Si doped (SiRichNitride, SRN)

CsI

doped SiO2

  • ultra fast (single electron) detector: σ = 10 ps
  • E-force much larger than Lorenz force: operates in B-field
  • radiation hard
  • low mass

In vacuum: no gaseous detector………..

slide8

Classical Photo Cathode: Quantum Efficiency (QE) ~ 40 % at max

Can this be largely improved?

In vacuum: no gaseous detector………..

slide9

Towards we ain’t there yet

10 psnot quite an arbitrary goal

single the ultimate sensitivity

soft ~ 1 eV: there are other photons (like 511 keV)

photon a very fundamental particle

detectors that is where we are here for

Have a good exchange of information!

slide11

Provoking speakers:

  • Paul Lecoq
  • Gary Varner
  • John Smedley
  • bringing forward ‘aggressive’ thesis’ like:
  • ‘with Si-PMs 10 ps time resolution may be feasible,
  • but at the cost of a lot of noise’
  • ‘Scintillators are too slow for applications in 10 psdetectors
  • Contrarily, Cherenkov radiation becomes more important’
  • ‘There is no fundamental limit for the QE of photo cathodes’