ba 5201 organization and management organizational technology n.
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BA 5201 Organization and Management Organizational technology. Instructor: Çağrı Topal. Technology. The work performed by an organization

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technology
Technology
  • The work performed by an organization
  • The knowledge, tools, machines, information, skills, and materials used to complete tasks within organizations as well as the nature of the outputs of the organization
  • The way an organization uses resources to produce products and services
  • Not only the machinery but also the method
  • Associated with organizational structure
levels of technology
Levels of technology
  • Organizational-level or core technology
  • Work unit or departmental technology
  • Interdependent relationships between work units or departments
organizational level technology woodward s classification
Organizational-level technologyWoodward's classification
  • Technical complexity criterion
  • Unit or small batch technology
  • Mass or large batch technology
  • Continuous process or flow technology
woodward s classification unit or small batch technology
Woodward's classificationUnit or small batch technology
  • A few units at a time
  • Customized production
  • Little stockpiling
  • Labor intensive
  • Custom tailor shop
  • Organic structure
  • Coordination with customization
woodward s classification mass or large batch technology
Woodward's classificationMass or large batch technology
  • Many units of the same or similar product
  • Moderate capital and labor intensity
  • Undifferentiated output
  • Stockpiling possible
  • Clothing
  • Mechanistic/bureaucratic structure
  • Coordination with standardization
woodward s classification continuous process flow technology
Woodward's classificationContinuous process/flow technology
  • Continuous production
  • Capital intensive
  • Standardized production and output
  • Direct labor involvement is little labor involvement
  • Breweries
  • Organic structure
  • Coordination with professionalization
hull and collins classification technical batch technology
Hull and Collins’ classificationTechnical batch technology
  • High knowledge complexity and small scale operations
  • General-purpose computer controlled and automated capital equipment
  • Professional and technical experts, and skilled and semi-skilled operators
  • Organic-professional adhocracy
  • High research and development, and innovative activity
  • Aerospace electronics
hull and collins classification traditional batch technology
Hull and Collins’ classificationTraditional batch technology
  • Low knowledge complexity and small scale operations
  • General-purpose non-automated capital equipment
  • Skilled or unskilled operators
  • Simple traditional craft structure
  • Low research and development, and innovative activity
  • Dressmaking
hull and collins classification continuous process technology
Hull and Collins’ classificationContinuous process technology
  • High knowledge complexity and large scale operations
  • Automated and integrated, and sometimes computer controlled capital equipment
  • Skilled operators and a large number of engineers
  • Professional bureaucracy
  • Medium to high research and development, and innovative activity
  • Petrochemical plant
hull and collins classification mass production technology
Hull and Collins’ classificationMass production technology
  • Low knowledge complexity and large scale operations
  • Automated, repeat-cycle, and sequential capital equipment
  • Semi-skilled operators and a small number of engineers
  • Mechanistic-bureaucratic or machine bureaucracy
  • Low to medium research and development, and innovative activity
  • Carburetor assembly
service as a core technology
Service as a core technology
  • Intangibility
  • Customization
  • Customer participation
  • Simultaneous production and consumption
  • Labor intensity
  • Low workflow integration and organic structure
    • Low level of automation
    • Flexible workflow
    • Unclear and subjective evaluation measures
work unit or department technology dimensions
Work unit or department technologyDimensions
  • Task variety
    • Many or few exceptions
    • A large or small number of unrelated tasks and unexpected events
    • Various or limited raw materials
    • Flexibility or inflexibility
  • Task analyzability
    • Readily available or unavailable information
    • Standardized and programmed or ambiguous and complex
work unit or department technology categories craft technology
Work unit or department technologyCategories-craft technology
  • Low variety and low analyzability
  • Mostly organic structure
  • Moderate formalization and centralization
  • Experienced workers with moderate specialization
  • Moderate span of supervisory control
  • Horizontal communication
  • Test chefs and degustators
  • Somewhat flexible control and coordination
work unit or department technology categories routine technology
Work unit or department technologyCategories-routine technology
  • Low variety and high analyzability
  • Mechanistic structure
  • High formalization and centralization
  • Low skill and narrow specialization
  • Wide span of supervisory control
  • Little vertical communication
  • Maintenance and clerical jobs
  • Close control
work unit or department technology categories engineering technology
Work unit or department technologyCategories-engineering technology
  • High variety and high analyzability
  • Mostly mechanistic structure
  • Moderate formalization and centralization
  • Formal training and moderate specialization
  • Moderate span of supervisory control
  • Vertical and horizontal communication
  • Accounting and legal research jobs
  • Somewhat close control and coordination
work unit or department technology categories non routine technology
Work unit or department technologyCategories-non-routine technology
  • High variety and low analyzability
  • Organic structure
  • Low formalization and centralization
  • Highly trained and experienced workers and generalists
  • Small span of supervisory control
  • Extensive horizontal communication
  • Strategic planners and top management
  • Flexible coordination
interdependent relationships thompson s framework
Interdependent relationshipsThompson's framework
  • Interdependence and coordination
  • How much does one unit or department depend on another to complete work?
  • What is the nature of that interdependence?
  • How can we achieve the necessary coordination?
  • Mediating technology
  • Long-linked technology
  • Intensive technology
thompson s framework mediating technology
Thompson's frameworkMediating technology
  • Bringing together individuals, departments, or organizations with complementary needs
  • Standard operating procedures and manuals
  • Low need for communication and coordination
  • Low horizontal communication
  • No need to locate different units closely
  • Pooled interdependence
  • Relatively independent units
thompson s framework long linked technology
Thompson's frameworkLong-linked technology
  • Proceeding in a serial or step-wise fashion
  • Steps in sequential order
  • Interdependent units close or adjacent to one another
  • Communication channels between units
  • Scheduled tasks
  • Sequential interdependence
  • Relatively dependent units
thompson s framework intensive technology
Thompson's frameworkIntensive technology
  • Involving situations in which the outputs of one individual, unit, or department become the inputs of another individual, unit, or department
  • Different skills, techniques, and methods brought together to accomplish a specific purpose
  • Units located together to facilitate communication and mutual adjustment
  • Reciprocal interdependence
  • Interdependent units
task job design and technology fitting people to jobs
Task/job design and technologyFitting people to jobs
  • Jobs nearly inflexible
  • People flexible
  • People selected and trained
  • Conducive to job specialization and assembly-line operations
task job design and technology fitting jobs to people
Task/job design and technologyFitting jobs to people
  • Available labor force over technology
  • Technology and jobs consistent with available skills and abilities
  • Job redesign and job enrichment
  • Creating more challenging and motivating jobs
task job design and technology socio technical systems
Task/job design and technologySocio-technical systems
  • Combining the first and second approaches
  • Qualities of individual employees, technologies, and relations between the two
  • Design of tools, equipment, and process depending on human aspects and adaptation