ARCH Emely Manrique Lorena Ferreira
INDEX • INTRODUCTION • HISTORY • TYPES OF ARCHES • PARTS OF THE ARCH • ELEMENTS DERIVED FROM THE ARCH • ARCH IN THE CITY • CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight In masonry construction, arches have several great advantages over horizontal beams, or lintels: • They can span much wider openings. • An arch can also carry a much greater load than a horizontal beam can support.
HISTORY • Arches were known in ancient Egypt and Greece. • The Romans used the semicircular arch in bridges, aqueducts, and large-scale architecture. • The Arabs popularized the pointed arch.
In the late Middle Ages the segmental arch was introduced. • Modern arches of steel, concrete, or laminated woodare highly rigid and lightweight.
TYPES OF ARCHES A roman arch: is a strong, rounded arch that forms a semi-circle. The pointed or gothic arch: developed as a more sinuous and elegant successor to the Roman arch.
A syrian, or segmental arch: forms a partial curve, or eyebrow, over a door or window. Tudor arches: feature a point at the crown, but the span is much wider than the Gothic style.
A flat arch: extends straight across an opening with no curvature, creating a horizontal emphasis. A horseshoe arch, extends beyond a semi-circle. The top of the arch is rounded and then curves in slightly before descending.
OTHER TYPES A blind arch: is an arch infilled with solid construction. A dome: is an arch rotated 360 degrees about its vertical axis.
Natural rock formations may also be referred to as arches. A vault: is an arch extended along the axis perpendicular to the its plane
Keystone: is the center stone found at the top of the arch and helps distribute the weight of the remainder of the arch. • Voussoir: The keystone is surrounded on each side by voussoirs, or wedge-shaped bricks or stones. • Pier: The keystone and voussoirs of an arch need a base on which to rest .
ELEMENTS DERIVED FROM THE ARCH Archivolt: An architrave that follows the line of an arch.
Flying buttress: A flying buttress is a specific form of buttressing most strongly associated with Gothic church architecture. Early English Gothic architecture emphasized height and used the pointed arch The introduction of flying buttresses, distributed the weight of roofs and walls right down to the ground
ARCH IN THE CITY Principal example of arch in the city is the triumphal arch, , often designed to span a road. In its simplest form a triumphal arch consists of two massive piers connected by an arch Triumphal arches are one of the most influential and distinctive types of architecture associated with ancient Rome. Arches in the Roman style have been built in many cities around the world, most notably the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, the Siegestor in Munich and the Wellington Arch in London.
The Arc de Triomphe in Paris is one of the most famous monuments in Paris. It stands in the centre of the Place Charles de Gaulle , . The Arc de Triomphehonours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I.
Thisvictorygateconsists of threearches - a largeone in the center and a smalleroneoneachside. Thearchisdecoratedwithwingedstatues - symbolizingvictory - and bas-reliefsdepictingbattlescenes. Atopthearchessits a statue of Bavariawith a lionquadriga, designedbyGermansculptor Martin von Wagner. TheSiegestorisbuilt in thestyle of a triumphalarch, notunlike Paris' Arc de TriompheortheArch of Constantine in Rome, onwhichitwasmodeled.
Wellington Arch, also known as Constitution Arch , is a triumphal arch located to the south of Hyde Park in central London . The arch, were planned in 1825 by George IV to commemorate Britain's victories in the Napoleonic Wars. The Wellington Arch was also conceived as an outer gateway to Constitution Hill and therefore a grand entrance into central London from the west. The Wellington Arch was built between 1826-1830 to a design by Decimus Burton.
CONCLUSION The arch is significant because, in theory at least, it provides a structure which eliminates tensile stresses tensoin spanning an open space. All the forces are resolved into compressive stresses , this is useful because several of the available building materials such as stone, cast iron and concrete can strongly resist compression but are very weak when tension, shear or torsional stress is applied to them. By using the arch configuration, significant spans can be achieved.