Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My
Download
1 / 40

I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent Creation of new Oceans Atlantic Indian - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 111 Views
  • Uploaded on

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My. I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent Creation of new Oceans Atlantic Indian circum-Antarctic formation of passive margins Closing of Tethys Ocean: complex Mediterranean – Middle East interactions

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent Creation of new Oceans Atlantic Indian' - oke


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My

I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent

  • Creation of new Oceans

    • Atlantic

    • Indian

    • circum-Antarctic

    • formation of passive margins

  • Closing of Tethys Ocean:

    • complex Mediterranean – Middle East interactions

    • major continental collisions in central Asia

    • Australian-SE Asian collisions


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

# 18 42.7 Ma

Middle Eocene

Indian Pacific connection

Drake Passage


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

#13 35.5 Ma

Early Oligocene

Indian Pacific connection

Drake Passage


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

#6, 20.5 Ma

Early Miocene

Indian Pacific connection

Drake Passage



I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Formation of Circum-Antarctic Current >> isolation of Antarctica >> formation of ice sheet

circum-Antarctic Current


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Formation of North Atlantic Deep water Antarctica >> formation of ice sheet

(thermo-haline convection system)


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Formation of continental passive margins Antarctica >> formation of ice sheet

continental shelf


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

continental passive margins Antarctica >> formation of ice sheet

Sedimentation on subsiding continental shelf

thinned continental crust

oceanic crust


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My Antarctica >> formation of ice sheet

I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent

  • Creation of new Oceans

    • Atlantic

    • Indian

    • circum-Antarctic

    • formation of passive margins

  • Closing of Tethys Ocean:

    • complex Mediterranean – Middle East interactions

    • major continental collisions in central Asia

    • Australian-SE Asian collisions


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Earthquake Antarctica >> formation of ice sheet

depth

0-33 km

33-70

70-300

300-700

Complex intra-continental Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”

Indonesian (Sunda-Banda) island arc


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Topography for previous slide: note complex topography of Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


India moving northwards
India moving northwards Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


Himalayan evolution
Himalayan evolution Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


Indention of india into asia
Indention of India into Asia Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

The named dashed and dotted lines represent boundaries between terranes successively accreted to Asia. The accretion increases in age to the north:

Indus Tsangbo, 40 Ma

Banggong,160 Ma

Jinsha, 200 Ma

Kunlun, 255 Ma

Tienshan, late Paleozoic

The indentation has moved these sutures northwards

The dotted areas show the regions of shearing that accomodated the northward indentation of India


Tibetan plateau models
Tibetan plateau models Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


Region of thetibetan plateau
Region of theTibetan Plateau Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

Ignore white rectangle. The blue line shows the approximate location of the section shown in the third slide after this one.


A recently published geological cross section
A recently published geological cross section Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

See the section line (blue line) on the map shown in the third preceding slide. From Yin, A. and T.M. Harrison, 2000, Geologic Evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., v.28, 211-280.


Central asian active tectonics
Central Asian active tectonics Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Hot spot tracks

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

East Pacific Rise Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Hot spot tracks

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Earthquake Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

depth

0-33 km

33-70

70-300

300-700

Northwestern Pacific Subduction zones: seismicity

Ryukyu island arc

Kurile-Kamchatka island arc

Aleutian Island arc

N. Honshu subduction zone

Izu-Bonin-Marianas island arc


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Northwestern Pacific Subduction zones: bathymetry Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Earthquake Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

depth

0-33 km

33-70

70-300

300-700

New Britain Island arc

Southwestern Pacific Subduction zones: seismicity

Vanuatu island arc

Tonga island arc

Kermadec island arc

New Zealand


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Southwestern Pacific Subduction zones: bathymetry Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Hot spot tracks

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America

  • Hot spot tracks


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Eastern Pacific Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

South American Plate Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

Nazca Plate

8 cm/yr


Central andes cross section
Central Andes cross section Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

South America Plate


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Hot spot tracks

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America

Continued in western_usa.ppt