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EEE 428 Introduction to Robotics. Information Sheet. Instructor: Mustafa Kemal Uyguroğ lu Office hours: Thursday 10:30-12:30 E-mail:m ustafa . uyguroglu TEXTBOOK Saeed B. Niku, “Introduction to robotics,” Prentice Hall, 2001 REFERENCES

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Eee 428 introduction to robotics l.jpg

EEE 428Introduction to Robotics

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Information Sheet

  • Instructor: Mustafa Kemal Uyguroğlu

  • Office hours:

    Thursday 10:30-12:30

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  • Saeed B. Niku, “Introduction to robotics,” Prentice Hall, 2001


  • John Craig, “Introduction to robotics,3rd Ed.” Prentice Hall, 2005

  • Mark W. Spong, M. Vidyasagar, “Robot Dynamics and Control”, John Wiley.

  • Richard P. Paul, “Robot Manipulators: Mathematics, Programming and Control”, MIT Press

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Course Objectives

At the end of this course, you should be able to:

  • Describe and analyze rigid motion.

  • Write down manipulator kinematics and operate with the resulting equations

  • Solve simple inverse kinematics problems.

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  • A brief history of robotics. Coordinates and Coordinates Inversion. Trajectory planning. Sensors. Actuators and control. Why robotics?

  • Basic Kinematics. Introduction. Reference frames. Translation. Rotation. Rigid body motion. Velocity and acceleration for General Rigid Motion. Relative motion. Homogeneous coordinates.

  • Robot Kinematics. Forward kinematics. Link description and connection. Manipulator kinematics. The workspace.

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Syllabus (cont.)

  • Inverse Kinematics. Introduction. Solvability. Inverse Kinematics. Examples. Repeatability and accuracy.

  • Basic Dynamics. Definitions and notation. Laws of Motion.

  • Trajectory Planning

  • Presenations

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Policies and Grades

  • There will be two homework assignments, one mid-term and one final examinations.

  • The test will be close book. The homeworks will count 7.5% each towards the final grade, the midterm exam 30%, final exam 40% and lab 15%.

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Policies and Grades (cont.)

  • Collaboration in the sense of discussions is allowed. You should write final solutions and understand them fully. Violation of this norm will be considered cheating, and will be taken into account accordingly.

  • Can work alone or in teams of 2

  • You can also consult additional books and references but not copy from them.

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The Project

  • EXTRA 10% marks on overall performance!

  • Can work alone or in teams of 2

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  • Introduction

    • What is a Robot?

    • Why use Robots?

    • Robot History

    • Robot Applications

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What is a robot?

  • Origin of the word “robot”

    • Czech word “robota”– labor, “robotnik” – workman

    • 1923 play by Karel Capek – Rossum’s Universal Robots

  • Definition: (no precise definition yet)

    • Webster’s Dictionary

      • An automatic device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings washing machine = robot?

    • Robotics Institute of American

      • A robot (industrial robot) is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices, through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.

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What is a robot?

  • By general agreement, a robot is:

    A programmable machine that imitates the actions or appearance of an intelligent creature–usually a human.

  • To qualify as a robot, a machine must be able to:

    1) Sensing and perception: get information from its surroundings

    2) Carry out different tasks: Locomotion or manipulation, do something physical–such as move or manipulate objects

    3) Re-programmable: can do different things

    4) Function autonomously and/or interact with human beings

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Types of Robots

  • Robot Manipulators

  • Mobile Manipulators

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Types of Robots

  • Locomotion

Aerial Robots

Wheeled mobile robots

Legged robots

Underwater robots


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Mobile Robot Examples

Hilare II

Sojourner Rover

NASA and JPL, Mars exploration

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Why Use Robots?

  • Application in 4D environments

    • Dangerous

    • Dirty

    • Dull

    • Difficult

  • 4A tasks

    • Automation

    • Augmentation

    • Assistance

    • Autonomous

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Why Use Robots?

  • Increase product quality

    • Superior Accuracies (thousands of an inch, wafer-handling: microinch)

    • Repeatable precision  Consistency of products

  • Increase efficiency

    • Work continuously without fatigue

    • Need no vacation

  • Increase safety

    • Operate in dangerous environment

    • Need no environmental comfort – air conditioning, noise protection, etc

  • Reduce Cost

    • Reduce scrap rate

    • Lower in-process inventory

    • Lower labor cost

  • Reduce manufacturing lead time

    • Rapid response to changes in design

  • Increase productivity

    • Value of output per person per hour increases

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Robot History

  • 1961

    • George C. Devol obtains the first U.S. robot patent, No. 2,998,237.

      • Joe Engelberger formed Unimation and was the first to market robots

    • First production version Unimate industrial robot is installed in a die-casting machine

  • 1962

    • Unimation, Inc. was formed, (Unimation stood for "Universal Automation")

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Robot History

  • 1968

    • Unimation takes its first multi-robot order from General Motors.

  • 1966-1972

    • "Shakey," the first intelligent mobile robot system was built at Stanford Research Institute, California.

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Robot History

  • Shakey (Stanford Research Institute)

    • the first mobile robot to be operated using AI techniques

  • Simple tasks to solve:

    • To recognize an object using vision

    • Find its way to the object

    • Perform some action on the object (for example, to push it over)

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Robot History

  • 1969

    • Robot vision, for mobile robot guidance, is demonstrated at the Stanford Research Institute.

    • Unimate robots assemble Chevrolet Vega automobile bodies for General Motors.

  • 1970

    • General Motors becomes the first company to use machine vision in an industrial application The Consight system is installed at a foundry in St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada.

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The Stanford Cart

Hans Moravec

  • 1973-1979

    • Stanford Cart

    • Equipped with stereo vision.

    • Take pictures from several different angles

    • The computer gauged the distance between the cart and obstacles in its path

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Robot History

  • 1978

    • The first PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) robot is developed by Unimation for General Motors.

  • 1981

    • IBM enters the robotics field with its 7535 and 7565 Manufacturing Systems.

  • 1983

    • Westinghouse Electric Corporation bought Unimation, Inc., which became part of its factory automation enterprise. Westinghouse later sold Unimation to Staubli of Switzerland.

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Installed Industrial Robots

  • Japan take the lead, why?

  •  Shortage of labor, high labor cost

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How are they used?

  • Industrial robots

    • 70% welding and painting

    • 20% pick and place

    • 10% others

  • Research focus on

    • Manipulator control

    • End-effector design

      • Compliance device

      • Dexterity robot hand

    • Visual and force feedback

    • Flexible automation

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Robotics: a much bigger industry

  • Robot Manipulators

    • Assembly, automation

  • Field robots

    • Military applications

    • Space exploration

  • Service robots

    • Cleaning robots

    • Medical robots

  • Entertainment robots

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The Course at a Glimpse: Kinematics

F(robot variables) = world coordinates

x = x(1,, n)

y = y(1,, n)

z = z(1,, n)

  • In a “cascade” robot, Kinematics is a single-valued mapping.

  • “Easy” to compute.

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Kinematics: Example

1= , 2=r

1 r  4.5

0  50o

x = r cos 

y = r sin 

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Inverse Kinematics

  • G(world coordinates) = robot variables

    1 = 1(x,y,z)

    1 = 1(x,y,z)

  • The inverse problem has a lot of geometrical difficulties

  • inversion may not be unique!

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Inverse Kinematics: Example

Make unique by constraining angles