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Principles of the Biological Level of Analysis. IB PSYCHOLOGY. Principles. Principle 1 The basis of emotions and behaviour are largely products of anatomy and physiology (don’t deny the influence of environment). It can be understood in terms of: T he effect of hormones

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Principles of the biological level of analysis

Principles of the Biological Level of Analysis

IB PSYCHOLOGY


Principles
Principles

Principle 1

The basis of emotions and behaviour are largely products of anatomy and physiology (don’t deny the influence of environment). It can be understood in terms of:

  • The effect of hormones

  • The effect of neurotransmitters

  • The effect of brain localisation.

  • The effect of genes

    The relationship is bi-directional. Biology can affect cognition and cognition can affect biology.

    Reductionist – explains complex behaviour in terms of simple causes.


Principles1
Principles

Research connected with Principle 1

  • Scachter & Singer (1962) performed an experiment on the role of adrenaline (a hormone) in causing emotion.

  • Broca’s area & Wernicke’s area – localisation of function

  • HM – localisation of function of the brain

  • Martinez & Kesner (1991) on the role of Acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) on memory (see Crane p 41)


Principles2
Principles

Principle 2: Animal Research can provide insight into human behaviour

  • Researchers use animals to study physiological processes – assumed that most biological processes in non-human animals are the same as humans.

  • One important reason for using animals is that humans cannot be used for ethical reasons.


Principles3
Principles

Research connected with principle 2

  • Le Doux (1999) tested the role of Amygdala in fear responses by damaging the amygdala of rats and then testing their emotional response.

  • Martinez & Kesner (1991) – the research on acetylcholine on memory was undertaken by injecting rats with scopolamine (an acetylcholine inhibitor). See Crane p 41.


Principles4
Principles

Principle 3: Patterns of behaviour can be inherited – and is, to some extent, genetically based.

  • Behaviour can be explained by genetic inheritance although it rarely offers a full explanation and should be viewed as genetic inheritance influenced by environmental factors.

     Nature vs. Nurture

  • Researchers often use twins so that they can compare one twin with another – variables such as intelligence, depression etc


Principles5
Principles

Research connected to principle 3

  • Bouchard et al (1990) performed the Minesota twin study investigating the role of genes in IQ. Participants were MZ reared apart (MZA) and MZ reared together (MZT). MZA – 86%; MZT 76%.

  • Lee & Chamber (2006) – Research into the effect of MAO – monoamine oxidase – enzymes produced via genetic inheritance that break down dopamine and seratonin. Dubbed as ‘the warrior gene’.