economics and african american success in higher education n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Economics and African American Success in Higher Education PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Economics and African American Success in Higher Education

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 20

Economics and African American Success in Higher Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 182 Views
  • Uploaded on

Economics and African American Success in Higher Education. Victoire S. Chochezi May 31, 2010 Drexel University. “The future strength of the American economy and workforce will largely depend on the postsecondary educational attainments of all Americans—

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Economics and African American Success in Higher Education' - oistin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
economics and african american success in higher education

Economics and African American Success in Higher Education

Victoire S. Chochezi

May 31, 2010

Drexel University

review of literature

“The future strength of the American economy and workforce will largely

depend on the postsecondary educational attainments of all Americans—

regardless of gender, racial, or ethnic background.”

-George Wimberly, Director of Social Justice

and Professional Development at the

American Educational Research Association

Review of literature
economics and african american success in higher ed

Participation in higher education corresponds to higher earnings for all racial groups and both genders.

  • The income gap between high school graduates and college graduates is widening.
  • Society benefits monetarily and non-monetarily from individuals who participate in higher education.
  • Individuals who participate in higher education pay more taxes, have lower levels of poverty, unemployment and incarceration.
  • College graduates have lower smoking rates than others.
  • Higher education participants have higher incidents of voting, donating blood and volunteering. (Baum and Payea. Mankiw).
Economics and African American Success in Higher Ed
what will improve academic success among african americans in higher education

For this review, my primary goal was to gain a greater understanding of what will improve academic success among African Americans in higher education in the United States.

What will improve academic success among African Americans in higher education?
poor participation in higher ed

African Americans are underperforming academically in grades K-16.

  • The articles I reviewed did not discuss high suspension and expulsion rates for African American students in K-12.
  • Mostly they addressed test scores and performance disparities between Black, White, Hispanic and Native American students.
Poor participation in higher ed
reasons for poor participation and achievement

Inadequate financial resources

  • Improper preparation in early grades created a deficit nearly impossible to overcome,
  • Weak relationships and opposition to identity
Reasons for poor participation and achievement
financial barriers

People from low-income families and those whose parents did not go to college are less likely to participate in higher ed than more affluent families, or White and Asian individuals. (Baum and Payea).

  • Many Americans use equity in their homes to fund education, but less than half of African Americans own their home compared to 75 percent of White families. (Pell Grants article).
Financial Barriers
more financial barriers

President Obama, Oprah, Cosby and Beyonce do not represent typical African American income and achievement levels.

  • The median income of black families in the United States is only 62 percent of the median income of white families.
  • The typical black family holds only one tenth the wealth of the average white family
  • Blacks are three times as likely as whites to be poor.
  • African Americans are twice as often out of work as whites. (Pell Grants article)
More Financial Barriers
poor preparation

Starting or falling behind in kindergarten often lands individuals in remedial classes in high school and college. (Allen, W, Jayakumar, U. and Franke, R.)

  • At-risk students are often tracked and steered into remedial classes. (Allen, et. al.)
Poor preparation
poor early preparation has lasting effects

“In 2004, Blacks represented 5.4% of all doctorates earned at private universities compared to Whites (48%), Asians/Pacific Islanders (11%), and Latinos (5.5%). Continuing at this rate, it will take more than five generations, or over 100 years, for people of color in California to close the doctoral degree ‘achievement gap’ with Whites.” (Allen et. al.)

Poor early preparation has lasting effects
lasting effects of poor preparation in early grades

“In addition, the disparate academic facilities, resources and opportunities Black students often experience early in the educational pipeline guarantee limited future representation of Black professionals in workplace settings—academia, government, business and industry—that both champion and rely on multiculturalism and diversity.”

Lasting effects of poor preparation in early grades
identity and relationships

When the student doesn’t fit the preferred identity, the individual’s academic progress is negatively impacted.

  • Students from different backgrounds may resent the ideal standard and rebel against it.
  • When other identities are accommodated in the school setting, academics tend to suffer from lack of focus and concentration.

(Akerlof and Kranton, Identity and Schooling).

Identity and Relationships
identity and social relationships

Akerlof and Kranton create a model which helps establish a link between economic activities and psychological identity. They find that some people can choose their identity, while others lived with a prescribed identity. (Akerlof and Kranton, Economics and Identity).

Identity and Social Relationships
positive social relationships improve academic achievement

Teachers talking to students, school personnel expectations and extracurricular activities improve student achievement. (Wimberly).

He proposes a Personal Adult Advocate per every 20 students. In this economic climate of budget cuts, counselor and teacher layoffs, such a proposition seems practically impossible.

Positive social relationships improve academic achievement
identity and relationships1

Using Critical Race Theory, Harper, Patton and Wooden chronicle education policy addressing African Americans from 1832 to 2009.

  • They find some policies were detrimental to African American education, while others created progress.
  • Overall, they conclude that such policies take African Americans three steps forward and two steps back, such as approving, then repealing affirmative action.
  • Affirmative action helped increase the number of African American students admitted to college and the repeal significantly reduced the numbers.
Identity and Relationships
summary

Undisputedly, African Americans are underrepresented in higher education both as educators and as students.

  • They tend to underachieve in college, taking longer to graduate if at all.
  • This literature review examined some reasons for the pattern. Understanding reasons for the gap may lead to discovering solutions. Indeed the authors reviewed proposed a few.
Summary
wrap up

One area I would like to explore further since completing this assignment is the role culture could play in improving African American higher education achievement.

  • The review pointed to the need for African Americans to form better, stronger relationships with peers, teachers and school officials.
  • The literature barely touched on a need for more faculty of color, but did suggest that individuals with the same background tend to have more positive relationships.
  • There are many ways to infuse more cultural relevancy into schools. If school was culturally relevant, would African Americans perform better?
Wrap up
slide19

References

(2010). Institute for Higher Education Policy. A Snapshot of African Americans in Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.ihep.org/assets/files/publications/a-f/BLACK_HISTORY_MONTH_2010_MINI_BRIEF.pdf on April 16, 2010.

(2010). Pell Grants: The Cornerstone of African American Higher Education. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.jbhe.com/features/65_pellgrants.html on April 15, 2010.

Akerlof, G., and Kranton, R.. (2000). Economics and Identity. Quarterly Journal of Economics, August 2000, vol. 115, no. 3. (pp. 715-753). Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2586894.

Akerlof, G. and Kranton, R. (2002). Identity and Schooling: Some Lessons for the Economics of Education. Journal of Economic Literature, December 2002. (pp. 1167-1201).

Allen, W, Jayakumar, U. and Franke, R. (2009). Till Victory is Won: The African American Struggle for Higher Education in America. Retrieved from http://www.choices.gseis.ucla.edu/reports/TillVictory-FINAL-ChoicesWebsite.pdf on April 16, 2010.

Baum, S. and Payea, K. (2005). Education Pays 2004: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society. (www.collegeboard.com)

references continued

Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., and Zingales, L. (2006). Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes? Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 20, no. 2, Spring 2006. (pp. 23-48).

Harper, S., Patton, L. and Wooden, O. (2009). Access and Equity for African American Students in Higher Education: A Critical Race Historical Analysis of Policy Efforts. The Journal of Higher Education. Vol. 80. No. 4. July/August 2009. The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=sharper on April 16, 2009.

Long, B. (2007). The Contribution of Economics to the Study of College Access and Success. TC Record.

Mankiw N. G. (2008). Essentials of Economics, Fifth Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Li, N., and Miller, G. (2008). Seeking Factors for and Promoting Student Academic Success. Faculty Resource Network. Retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/frn/publications/defining.success/Li.html on April 14, 2010.

Wimberly, G. (2002). School Relationships Foster Success for African American Students. ACT Policy Report. Retrieved from http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/school_relation.pdf

References continued