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Economics and African American Success in Higher Education. Victoire S. Chochezi May 31, 2010 Drexel University. “The future strength of the American economy and workforce will largely depend on the postsecondary educational attainments of all Americans—
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Victoire S. Chochezi
May 31, 2010
depend on the postsecondary educational attainments of all Americans—
regardless of gender, racial, or ethnic background.”
-George Wimberly, Director of Social Justice
and Professional Development at the
American Educational Research AssociationReview of literature
Participation in higher education corresponds to higher earnings for all racial groups and both genders.
For this review, my primary goal was to gain a greater understanding of what will improve academic success among African Americans in higher education in the United States.What will improve academic success among African Americans in higher education?
People from low-income families and those whose parents did not go to college are less likely to participate in higher ed than more affluent families, or White and Asian individuals. (Baum and Payea).
President Obama, Oprah, Cosby and Beyonce do not represent typical African American income and achievement levels.
Starting or falling behind in kindergarten often lands individuals in remedial classes in high school and college. (Allen, W, Jayakumar, U. and Franke, R.)
“In 2004, Blacks represented 5.4% of all doctorates earned at private universities compared to Whites (48%), Asians/Pacific Islanders (11%), and Latinos (5.5%). Continuing at this rate, it will take more than five generations, or over 100 years, for people of color in California to close the doctoral degree ‘achievement gap’ with Whites.” (Allen et. al.)Poor early preparation has lasting effects
“In addition, the disparate academic facilities, resources and opportunities Black students often experience early in the educational pipeline guarantee limited future representation of Black professionals in workplace settings—academia, government, business and industry—that both champion and rely on multiculturalism and diversity.”Lasting effects of poor preparation in early grades
When the student doesn’t fit the preferred identity, the individual’s academic progress is negatively impacted.
(Akerlof and Kranton, Identity and Schooling).Identity and Relationships
Akerlof and Kranton create a model which helps establish a link between economic activities and psychological identity. They find that some people can choose their identity, while others lived with a prescribed identity. (Akerlof and Kranton, Economics and Identity).Identity and Social Relationships
Teachers talking to students, school personnel expectations and extracurricular activities improve student achievement. (Wimberly).
He proposes a Personal Adult Advocate per every 20 students. In this economic climate of budget cuts, counselor and teacher layoffs, such a proposition seems practically impossible.Positive social relationships improve academic achievement
Using Critical Race Theory, Harper, Patton and Wooden chronicle education policy addressing African Americans from 1832 to 2009.
Undisputedly, African Americans are underrepresented in higher education both as educators and as students.
One area I would like to explore further since completing this assignment is the role culture could play in improving African American higher education achievement.
(2010). Institute for Higher Education Policy. A Snapshot of African Americans in Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.ihep.org/assets/files/publications/a-f/BLACK_HISTORY_MONTH_2010_MINI_BRIEF.pdf on April 16, 2010.
(2010). Pell Grants: The Cornerstone of African American Higher Education. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.jbhe.com/features/65_pellgrants.html on April 15, 2010.
Akerlof, G., and Kranton, R.. (2000). Economics and Identity. Quarterly Journal of Economics, August 2000, vol. 115, no. 3. (pp. 715-753). Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2586894.
Akerlof, G. and Kranton, R. (2002). Identity and Schooling: Some Lessons for the Economics of Education. Journal of Economic Literature, December 2002. (pp. 1167-1201).
Allen, W, Jayakumar, U. and Franke, R. (2009). Till Victory is Won: The African American Struggle for Higher Education in America. Retrieved from http://www.choices.gseis.ucla.edu/reports/TillVictory-FINAL-ChoicesWebsite.pdf on April 16, 2010.
Baum, S. and Payea, K. (2005). Education Pays 2004: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society. (www.collegeboard.com)
Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., and Zingales, L. (2006). Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes? Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 20, no. 2, Spring 2006. (pp. 23-48).
Harper, S., Patton, L. and Wooden, O. (2009). Access and Equity for African American Students in Higher Education: A Critical Race Historical Analysis of Policy Efforts. The Journal of Higher Education. Vol. 80. No. 4. July/August 2009. The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=sharper on April 16, 2009.
Long, B. (2007). The Contribution of Economics to the Study of College Access and Success. TC Record.
Mankiw N. G. (2008). Essentials of Economics, Fifth Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Li, N., and Miller, G. (2008). Seeking Factors for and Promoting Student Academic Success. Faculty Resource Network. Retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/frn/publications/defining.success/Li.html on April 14, 2010.
Wimberly, G. (2002). School Relationships Foster Success for African American Students. ACT Policy Report. Retrieved from http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/school_relation.pdfReferences continued