geology concepts n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Geology Concepts PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Geology Concepts

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 59

Geology Concepts - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 139 Views
  • Uploaded on

Geology Concepts. Mr. Clark BHS. Key Concepts. Major geologic processes. Earthquakes and volcanoes. Minerals, rocks, and the rock cycle. Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth. Features of the Crust and Upper Mantle. External Earth Processes. Erosion . Mechanical weathering.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Geology Concepts' - ohio


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
geology concepts

Geology Concepts

Mr. Clark

BHS

key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Major geologic processes
  • Earthquakes and volcanoes
  • Minerals, rocks, and the rock cycle
  • Plate Tectonics
external earth processes
External Earth Processes
  • Erosion
  • Mechanical weathering
  • Frost wedging
  • Chemical weathering
  • Biological weathering
natural hazards earthquakes
Natural Hazards: Earthquakes
  • Features
  • Magnitude
  • Aftershocks
  • Primary effects
  • Secondary effects
expected earthquake damage
Expected Earthquake Damage

No damage expected

Minimal damage

Canada

Moderate damage

Severe damage

United States

natural hazards volcanic eruptions
Natural Hazards: Volcanic Eruptions

extinct

volcanoes

central

vent

magma

conduit

magma

reservoir

Solid

lithosphere

Partially molten

asthenosphere

Upwelling

magma

minerals and rocks
Minerals and Rocks
  • Mineral (diamond, quartz)

Rock Types

  • Igneous (granite, basalt)
  • Sedimentary (limestone, sandstone)
  • Metamorphic (marble, slate)
slide10

Deposition

Transport

Erosion

Sedimentary Rock

Shale, Sandstone,

Limestone

Weathering

Metamorphic Rock

Slate, Quartzite,

Marble

Rock Cycle

Heat,

Pressure

Heat,

Pressure

Igneous Rock

Granite, Pumice,

Basalt

Magma

(Molten Rock)

slide11

Abyssal

hills

Folded mountain belt

Abyssal

floor

Oceanic

ridge

Abyssal

floor

Trench

Craton

Volcanoes

Continental

rise

Oceanic crust

(lithosphere)

Continental

slope

Abyssal plain

Continental

shelf

Abyssal plain

Continental crust

(lithosphere)

Mantle (lithosphere)

Mantle

(lithosphere)

Mantle (asthenosphere)

slide12

Spreading

center

Oceanic tectonic

plate

Oceanic tectonic

plate

Ocean trench

Collision between

two continents

Plate movement

Plate movement

Tectonic plate

Oceanic

crust

Oceanic

crust

Subduction

zone

Continental

crust

Continental

crust

Material cools

as it reaches

the outer

mantle

Cold dense

material falls

back through

mantle

Hot material

rising

through

the mantle

Mantle

convection

cell

Mantle

Two plates move

towards each other.

One is subducted

back into the mantle

on falling convection

current.

Hot outer

core

Inner

core

slide13

Divergent ( ) and

transform fault ( )

boundaries

Reykjanes

Ridge

EURASIAN

PLATE

EURASIAN PLATE

Mid-

Atlantic

Ocean

Ridge

ANATOLIAN

PLATE

JUAN DE

FUCA PLATE

NORTH

AMERICAN

PLATE

CARIBBEAN

PLATE

CHINA

SUBPLATE

Transform

fault

ARABIAN

PLATE

PHILIPPINE

PLATE

PACIFIC

PLATE

AFRICAN

PLATE

COCOS

PLATE

Mid-

Indian

Ocean

Ridge

Transform

fault

SOUTH

AMERICAN

PLATE

Carlsberg

Ridge

East Pacific

Rise

SOMALIAN

SUBPLATE

INDIAN-AUSTRLIAN PLATE

Southeast Indian

Ocean Ridge

Transform

fault

Southwest Indian

Ocean Ridge

ANTARCTIC PLATE

Plate motion

at convergent

plate boundaries

Plate motion

at divergent

plate boundaries

Convergent

plate boundaries

animation
Animation

Plate margins interaction.

Click to view animation.

divergent boundary
Divergent Boundary

Lithosphere

Asthenosphere

Oceanic ridge at a divergent plate boundary

convergent boundary
Convergent Boundary

Trench

Volcanic island arc

Lithosphere

Rising

magma

Asthenosphere

Subduction

zone

Trench and volcanic island arc at a convergent

plate boundary

slide17

Fracture zone

Transform

fault

Lithosphere

Asthenosphere

Transform fault connecting two divergent plate boundaries

slide18

Two adjoining plates

move laterally along

the fault line

Liquefaction of

recent sediments

causes buildings

to sink

Earth movements

cause flooding in

low-lying areas

Landslides may

occur on

hilly ground

Shock

waves

Epicenter

Focus

slide19

Canada

No damage expected

Minimal damage

Moderate damage

United States

Severe damage

slide20

extinct

volcanoes

central

vent

magma

reservoir

magma

conduit

Solid

lithosphere

Upwelling

magma

Partially molten

asthenosphere

slide21

Erosion

Transportation

Weathering

Deposition

Igneous Rock

Granite,pumice,

basalt

Sedimentary Rock

Shale, sandstone,

limestone

Heat, pressure

Heat, pressure, stress

Magma

(molten rock)

Melting

Metamorphic Rock

Slate, marble,

quartzite

slide22

Black smoker

White

smoker

Sulfide

deposit

Tube worms

Magma

White crab

White clam

geologic time scale
Geologic Time Scale

Because fossils appeared in a predictable order, one can use them as relative time markers.

What’s more you can define time periods based on certain fossils that were living at that time.

This enabled geologists to construct the Geologic Time Scale and name its periods based on the fossil record.

plate tectonics
Plate Tectonics
  • Divergent boundary
  • Convergent boundary
  • Subduction zone
  • Transform fault
plate tectonics fundamentals
Plate Tectonics: Fundamentals

Evidence - plate tectonics unites many disparate observations

Sea-floor spreading - the oceans widening is the mechanism that moves the continents

plate tectonics fundamentals1
Plate Tectonics: Fundamentals

Plate margins - convergent, divergent, transform

Continental crust vs. oceanic crust

The Earth’s interior: lithosphere, mantle, core

slide30

http://imiloa.wcc.hawaii.edu/krupp/BIOL101/present/lcture18/img009.jpghttp://imiloa.wcc.hawaii.edu/krupp/BIOL101/present/lcture18/img009.jpg

continental drift
Continental Drift

Alfred Wegener

(1880-1930)

slide32

Wegener’s version

of continental drift

(1912)

Wegener was correct…

but he had no mechanism.

plate tectonics 1960s
Plate Tectonics - 1960s

New data:

the age of the ocean floor

magnetic stripes

slide37

Magnetic Stripes and Seafloor Spreading

http://jove.geol.niu.edu/faculty/fischer/105_info/105_E_notes/lecture_notes/Plate_Tectonics/PT_images/magnetic_stripes_form.gif

slide39

How does

seafloor spreading

lead to continental

breakup?

http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~debari/406/figs/divergent.jpeg

slide44

Transform fault

plate boundaries

oceanic vs continental crust
Oceanic vs. Continental Crust

Age:

OC = <180 m.y.a.

CC = 2-3 b.y.a.

Thickness:

OC = 5-7 kilometers thick

CC = 10-70 km

oceanic vs continental crust1
Oceanic vs. Continental Crust

Composition:

OC = basaltic

CC = granitic

Density:

OC = 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter

CC = 2.7 gm/cc

the earth s interior
The Earth’s interior

Composition:

Crust – mafic / felsic

Mantle - ultramafic

the earth s interior 2 bases for layering
The Earth’s interior: 2 bases for layering

Viscosity/Velocity:

Lithosphere - rigid & non- flowable, 0-150km

Asthenosphere - soft & flowable, 150-400 km ( “upper mantle”)

Mantle

- transition zone (400-670 km)

- lower mantle (670-2900 km)

Core

plate tectonics explains things for example
Plate tectonics explains things, for example...

Mountain belts

The Hawaiian islands