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Michelle Ounkham Teddy Vang Dustin Trang. Gaochia Vang Michelle Yang. The Triumph of Science. The pace of science became faster and more advance. It became very influential in human thought. Industrial technology highly stimulated scientific research.

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the triumph of science
The Triumph of Science

The pace of science became faster and more advance.

  • It became very influential in human thought.
  • Industrial technology highly stimulated scientific research.
  • Thus, there was an explosive growth of scientific discoveries from 1830s onward.

Thermodynamics:

  • It based on Isaac Newton’s law of mechanics and the studies of the steam engine.
  • It inspected on the relationship between heat and mechanical energy.
  • By midcentury, physicists had developed the primary law of thermodynamics, which were applied to mechanical engineering, chemical process, and etc.

- The law of conservation of energy.

the triumph of science cont
The Triumph of Science cont.

Chemistry:

  • 1869, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleer (1834-1907) placed the rules of chemistry into the periodic law and periodic table.
  • Organic chemistry: the study of compounds of carbon.

Electricity:

  • In 1830’s & 1840’s, Michael Faraday’s (1796-1867) discoveries in electromagnetism lead to innovations concerning electricity.

The use in scientific research promoted an economic growth: 1880-1913.

The significant consequences:

  • Even though many people lacked scientific knowledge, experiences implicated the magnitude of science on popular thinking.
  • Philosophical implications of sciences began to spread.
  • Methods of science obtained unrivaled prestige after 1850.
social science and evolution
Social Science and Evolution
  • System of positive philosophy- Three different theoretical conditions: Theological, Metaphysical, and Scientific (Written by Auguste Comte)
  • Positivist method- applying scientific method to society which eventually would lead to discover eternals of human relations.
  • Evolution- all forms of life had arisen through a long process of continuous adjustment to the environment
  • On the Origin of Means of Natural Selection- chance differences of a given species help some survive while others die (by Charles Darwin)
  • Had impact and influence on European thought and middle classes
  • Social Darwinism- those who believed in Darwin’s theories.
  • Religious thought changed more to scientific thought with a logical solution to everything
realism in literature
Realism In Literature
  • Emile Zola, the giant of the realist movement in literature, defended against his violently criticized novel against charges of pornography and corruption of morals.
  • Zola claimed: he was a scientist using…’the modern method, the universal instrument of inquiry of which this age makes such ardent use to open up the future.. I chose characters completely dominated by their nerves and their blood, deprived of free-will, pushed to each action of their lives by the fatality of their flesh…I have simply done on living bodies of work analysis which surgeons perform on corpses’.
  • Zola’s literary manifesto articulated the themes of realism, which emerged in the 1840’s and continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890’s .
  • Realist writers literature should depict life exactly as it was.
  • Realists felt that facts spoke for themselves.
realism in literature cont
Realism In Literature Cont.
  • Major realist writers focused their extraordinary powers of observation on contemporary everyday life.
  • Romantics searched for the exotic and sublime, but the Realists pursued the typical and the common place.
  • Many realists focused on the working classes, especially urban working classes, which were neglected in imaginative literature before this time.
  • The realists put a microscope to many unexplored and taboo subjects- sex, strikes, violence, alcoholism- hastened to report that factories had savage behavior.
  • Many middle-class critics denounced realism as ugly sensationalism wrapped provocatively in pseudoscientific declarations and crude language.
  • Unlike the romantics who glorified individual freedom and an unlimited universe, realists such as Zola were strict determinists.
  • Realist movement began in France.
realism in literature cont1
Realism In Literature Cont.
  • The three greatest practitioners- Balzac, Flaubert, and Zola- were French.

Honore de Balzac:

  • Wrote ‘The Human Comedy’ .
  • Pictures urban society as grasping, amoral, and brutal.

Gustave Flaubert:

  • Wrote ‘Madame Bovary’’ which is a story of a frustrated middle-class housewife who has a love affair and is betrayed by her lover.
  • Portrays the middle class as petty, smug, and hypocritical.
  • Flaubert’s writing was far narrower in scope than Balzac’s work.
  • Prosecuted.
realism in literature cont2
Realism In Literature Cont.

Emile Zola

  • Was most famous for his seamy, animalistic view of working-class life.
  • He eventually sympathized with socialism, and wrote the overpowering novel Germinal in 1885.

Realism swiftly spread beyond France.

  • In England, Mary A. Evans. who wrote under the pen name George Eliot, mastered a more deeply felt and less thrilling kind of realism.
  • Evan’s Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life examines the ways the social medium shaped their lives, which include their moral choices, inner striving, and conflicts.
realism in literature cont3
Realism In Literature Cont.

Count Leo Tolstoy

  • In Russia, Tolstoy was the greatest realist who combined realism and character development with atypical moralizing.
  • War and Peace was published in 1864.
  • The novel set against the historical event of the Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812.
  • What comes around, goes around can be the modern slogan of Tolstoy’s message. “regarded free will as an illusion and the achievements of even the greatest leaders” will come fatal.
  • People accepted and discussed about Tolstoy’s central message: human love, trust, and everyday family ties-which are life’s enduring values.
realism in literature cont4
Realism In Literature Cont.

Late message for the United States

  • Realism arrived in the United States around the early 1900s.
  • Theodore Dreiser leaded realism.
  • Wrote Sister Carrie which outraged conventional morality that the publishers withdrew from the book.
  • In time, the United States became a mainstay of literary realism in the twentieth century after the movement had faded in Europe.