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CHAPTER 3: Solids, Liquids, and Gases. By: Lizza V., Isabella G., Enrique K., Chelsea A. Melting. Vaporization. Liquid. GAS. Solid. Boiling Point. Melting Point. Condensation. Freezing. Sublimation. Deposition. Types of Solids:.

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chapter 3 solids liquids and gases

CHAPTER 3: Solids, Liquids, and Gases

By: Lizza V., Isabella G., Enrique K., Chelsea A.

slide5

Melting

Vaporization

Liquid

GAS

Solid

Boiling Point

Melting Point

Condensation

Freezing

Sublimation

Deposition

types of solids

Types of Solids:

CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS- solids made up of crystals like salt, sugar, and snow. They have a regular, repeating pattern.

AMORPHOUS SOLIDS- the particles of a solid are not arranged in a pattern. Examples are plastic, rubber, and glass.

slide7

MELTING:

Occurs at a specific temperature called the MELTING POINT. Melting point of water is 0 degrees Celsius. At it melting point particles of a solid substance are vibrating so fast that they break free from their fixed positions.

slide8

FREEZING:

It is the reverse of melting. At its freezing temperature the particles of a liquid are moving so slowly that they begin to form regular patterns.

slide9

VAPORIZATION:

It takes place when the particles in a liquid gain enough energy to form a gas. There are two main types of Vaporization: EVAPORATION and BOILING.

EVAPORATION- vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a liquid.

BOILING- occurs when a liquid changes to a gas below its surface, as well as at the surface. Temperature at which a liquid boils is called the BOILING POINT.

slide10

CONDENSATION:

It is the opposite of vaporization. It occurs when the particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid.

slide11

SUBLIMATION:

It occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas. During this process, particles of a solid do not pass through the liquid state as they form a gas.

slide12

PRESSURE AND VOLUME:

Boyle found that when the pressure of a gas at constant temperature is increased, the volume of the gas decreases. When the pressure is decreased, the volume increases.

pressure

PRESSURE

The pressure of a gas is the force of its outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container.

Pressure=Force/Area

slide14

PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE:

When the temperature of a gas at constant volume is increased, the pressure of the gas increases. When the temperature is decreased, the pressure of the gas decreases.

slide15

VOLUME AND TEMPERATURE:

Charles foundthat when the temperature of a gas is increased at constant pressure, its volume increases. When the temperature of a gas is decreased at constant pressure, its volume decreases.

charles s graph
Charles´s graph

The graph of Charles´s law shows that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature under constant pressure.

This graph is DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL, a graph of two variables that has a straight line passing through the origin.

boyle s law

Boyle´S law

The graph for Boyle´s law shows that the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume at constant temperature. This graph is said to VARY INVERSELY, having two variables that form a kind of curve.