FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN SELECTED UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK...
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FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN SELECTED UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES. By: Chege S.M., Kitala , P. & Muchemi G. Introduction. AWPR (Formerly Al Ain Zoo) founded in 1968 by the late Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

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By chege s m kitala p muchemi g

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN SELECTED UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

By:

ChegeS.M., Kitala, P. & Muchemi G.


Introduction
Introduction UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

  • AWPR (Formerly Al Ain Zoo) founded in 1968 by the late Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

  • Importance of zoos – education, conservation, exhibition(Goossenset al. 2005)

  • Ex-situ conservation challenges- resistance to diseases, naivety to predators, Inbreeding (few founders)


Objectives
Objectives UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

  • Overall objective

    • To investigate the causes of morbidity and mortality in some selected ungulate species in the zoo

  • Specific objectives

    • Estimate crude and cause-specific morbidity and mortality rates

    • Determine the risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality


Materials and methods
Materials and methods UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

  • Study area - Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort (Latitude 24°10'45.37"N, Longitude 55°44'19.99"E), Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates

  • Climate – Long summer (temperatures > 50oc) and short winter (≤ 6oc). Average annual rainfall >100mm

  • Study design – Historical data(6yrs) and follow up study (6mo)

  • Data analysis – Excel, Genstat, Univariate and multivariate analysis (Logistic regression-backward elimination)


Study population
Study population UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.


Study pop continued
Study pop continued UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.


Results
Results UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

  • Sex and age structure – (1Y:6A), (1M:1F), Arabian oryx neonates (2M:1F)

  • Feed – Alfalfa, hay, & pellets

  • 1keeper per 100 animals

  • Vet care – team, clinic, vaccination program

  • 2005-2010 morbidity cases = 1021. Arabian Oryx(28.5%) and Speke’s gazelle(27%)


Previous population 2004 2010
Previous population (2004-2010) UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.


Morbidity and mortality trends 2005 2010
Morbidity and Mortality trends (2005-2010) UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.


Major causes of morbidity mortality
Major causes of Morbidity & Mortality UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

Mortality causes

  • Septicaemia(38%)

  • Trauma (25%)

  • Reproductive disorders (12%)

  • Pneunomia (8%)

  • Diarrhoea (6%)

  • Unknown (6%)

  • Nutritional deficiencies (3%)

Morbidity causes

  • Trauma (40%)

  • Septicaemia(18%)

  • Diarrhoea(16%)

  • Reproductive disorders(9%)

  • Pneumonia(6%)

  • Nutritional deficiency(5%)

  • Unknown (5%)


Risk factors morbidity mortality
Risk factors -Morbidity & Mortality UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.


Discussion
Discussion UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

  • Morbidity and mortality increases with increased herd size (Lance et al. 1992; Silva del Rio et al. 2007)

  • Biased sex ratio of 2:1of the Arabian oryx newborns. Price (1989) reported a similar finding. On the contrary, Vie (1996),observed a sex ratio of 1:1

  • Neonates were 7x and 23x likely to get sick or die respectively…other similar reports ;Heinrichsand Radostits, (2001), Morrow et al. (1999),.

  • Lower birth weights recorded – may be related to inbreeding


Conclusion recommendation
Conclusion & Recommendation UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

  • Conclusion

  • True rates of morbidity(19.2%) and mortality (11.3%) per animal-month respectively – high

  • Trauma as leading cause of morbidity. Young die more than old. Low birth weights

  • Recommendations

  • Trauma – manage overcrowding , single male & several females

  • Initiate studies on genetic viability and maternal relatedness of the population


By chege s m kitala p muchemi g

Thank you for your attention UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.