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  1. OVERVIEW Chapter Concepts • Review Markup Languages • Examine Scripting Languages and Scripting Environments • Explore Programming Languages Multimedia for the Web

  2. INTRODUCTION Introduction • Today, Web developers and programmers must have skills using markup, scripting, and programming languages • Web server: The computer on which the files for Web pages are stored • Web client: The computer from which the user views the pages on a Web browser Multimedia for the Web

  3. INTRODUCTION Introduction • When your Web page includes access to a script or program stored on a Web server, information must be sent from the Web client back to the Web server for processing, storage, and later retrieval • Scripting and programming make the task of developing and maintaining Web sites easier Multimedia for the Web

  4. INTRODUCTION Introduction • Web developers design templates and then access the content dynamically through a database • Markup, scripting, and programming languages make a multimedia Web site more interactive and more interesting Multimedia for the Web

  5. CONCEPT 1 Review Markup Languages • Markup language: Full set of instructions used to comprehensively describe the structural format of a piece of text or other media element • Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML): Standard for defining the most common markup languages Multimedia for the Web

  6. CONCEPT 1 SGML • SGML: Consistent and precise method of applying markup tags so that electronic documents can be exchanged and revised between different computer systems • SGML itself is not a markup language; rather the standard on which the most common markup languages are based Multimedia for the Web

  7. CONCEPT 1 HTML/XHTML • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): Standard markup language used to create Web pages • Continues to develop and evolve based on the controls set by the World Wide Web Consortium • Extensible (XHTML): Provides support for XML; stricter in structure and syntax than previous versions of HTML Multimedia for the Web

  8. CONCEPT 1 DHTML • Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language (DHTML): Group of technologies used to create greater interactivity and page layout flexibility than is possible with XHTML alone • Includes XHTML, JavaScript, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), and the Document Object Model (DOM) Multimedia for the Web

  9. CONCEPT 1 DHTML • DHTML: All major Web browsers support DHTML, but differ in terms of what each considers acceptable syntax and scripting code Multimedia for the Web

  10. CONCEPT 1 VR • Virtual reality (VR) on the Web is created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) (pronounced “ver-mal”) • VRML: Simple and accessible way to create interactive worlds using 3-D graphics on the Web • QuickTime VR: One of the most popular tools for creating virtual reality Multimedia for the Web

  11. CONCEPT 1 SMIL • Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL): Offers control over synchronized multimedia by allowing individual components (such as audio, video, and graphics) to be played in relation to one another • SMIL’s text-based format also makes editing Web-based multimedia applications easy Multimedia for the Web

  12. CONCEPT 1 XML • Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language, but it is also a metalanguage • XML defines the data’s actual content, meaning, or use • By using XHTML and XML together, formatting can be separated from the content Multimedia for the Web

  13. CONCEPT 1 XML • Same XML source document can be written once, then displayed in a variety of ways • Allows documents to be viewed by various browsers without having to be specifically rewritten for each one Multimedia for the Web

  14. CONCEPT 1 XML • Because an XML file will work on any communications device, it won’t become obsolete as hardware and communications devices evolve • XML provides a way for databases from different vendors to exchange information across the Internet • XML is having a dramatic impact on the Web page development process Multimedia for the Web

  15. CONCEPT 1 WML • Wireless Markup Language (WML): Based on the Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML), which in turn is a subset of HTML • WML is the current standard for Web delivery on wireless handheld devices • WML is read and interpreted by a microbrowser that is built in to a wireless handheld device Multimedia for the Web

  16. CONCEPT 2 Scripting Languages • Scripts extend the capabilities of XHTML • Scripting languages are not as powerful as programming languages • It is important to test Web pages that contain scripts to ensure that they function as intended Multimedia for the Web

  17. CONCEPT 2 JavaScript • JavaScript: Object-oriented scripting language developed by Netscape to extend the capabilities of HTML • Object-oriented scripting language: Programmers describe data and procedures in terms of objects, methods, and properties Multimedia for the Web

  18. CONCEPT 2 JavaScript • JavaScript and Java are very different in their capabilities and execution • JavaScript adds interactivity and dynamic content to Web pages • Cookies store data on the Web client • JavaScript has been updated and extended to support newer browser capabilities Multimedia for the Web

  19. CONCEPT 2 JavaScript • JavaScript can do the following: • Add scrolling messages • Open a new pop-up window • Verify data input from forms • Create animation and dynamic images • Insert mouse rollovers • Create and read cookies • Display the current date and time Multimedia for the Web

  20. CONCEPT 2 Visual Basic • Microsoft VBScript is a script version of Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) programming language • VBScript is not cross platform; its popularity on the client-side of the Web is limited • VBScript: Primary scripting language used for Active Server Pages (ASP) Multimedia for the Web

  21. CONCEPT 2 Java Server Pages • Java Server Pages (JSP): Similar to ASP, is the Java-based technology for generating dynamic Web pages with cross-platform and cross-Web-server support • The JSP environment is not a scripting language and therefore it is not the same as JavaScript Multimedia for the Web

  22. CONCEPT 2 PHP • PHP (officially PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) is a server-side scripting language for creating dynamic Web page components • PHP is open source and runs on multiple platforms • Use PHP to set cookies, manage authentication, and redirect users Multimedia for the Web

  23. CONCEPT 3 Explore ProgrammingLanguages • Programming for Web page development is used to write programs that are accessed or called from an XHTML file • They extend the capabilities of a Web page beyond what is possible with markup and scripting languages Multimedia for the Web

  24. CONCEPT 3 Explore ProgrammingLanguages • If you need to store information in a server database or provide customized Web pages, server-side scripts or programs are usually the better solution • Often a combination of both client-side scripts and server-side scripts/programs are needed Multimedia for the Web

  25. CONCEPT 3 PERL • Practical Extraction and Report Language (Perl) is a powerful and flexible programming language • Many server-side programs are created in Perl • Powerful for manipulating text • Handles encrypted Web data, including e-commerce transactions Multimedia for the Web

  26. CONCEPT 3 Java • Java: Sun Microsystems’s full-fledged, object-oriented programming language • Applets: Small programs designed to be executed within another application or from a Web page Multimedia for the Web

  27. CONCEPT 3 Java • Before Java code can be run, it has to be processed by a special program to create an executable file or a Java applet • Web browser loads the applet or the executable file; has special built-in engine that can execute this file and display the output on the page Multimedia for the Web

  28. CONCEPT 3 Visual Basic • Visual Basic: Considered a high-level programming language, which means that almost all of the commands are English derivatives • Visual Basic includes many features specifically designed for database development and integration as well as the creation of server-side application Multimedia for the Web

  29. CONCEPT 3 C# • C# (pronounced “C sharp”): Modern, object-oriented language that enables programmers to quickly build a wide range of applications for the Microsoft .Net platform • Incorporates the best of C, Visual Basic, C++, and Java • Offers the optimum productivity that Web developers need Multimedia for the Web

  30. CONCEPT 3 ActiveX • ActiveX: Extension of object linking and embedding (OLE); create objects with one application and then link or embed them in another • Works best in a Windows environment • Fine for intranets, where the platform is likely to be more consistent or at least more controllable Multimedia for the Web

  31. SUMMARY Summary • Review Markup Languages • SGML • HTML/XHTML • DHTML • VR • SMIL • XML Multimedia for the Web

  32. SUMMARY Summary • WML • Scripting Languages • JavaScript • Visual Basic • Java Server Pages • PHP Multimedia for the Web

  33. SUMMARY Summary • Explore ProgrammingLanguages • PERL • Java • Visual Basic • C# • ActiveX Multimedia for the Web