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Liu Hua of the DDG of UNA-China July 2013

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  1. 2015年后国际发展议程中国国别咨询项目情况及有关融资挑战Introduction to China National Consultation on Post-2015 International Development Agenda and Challenges in Financing for MDGs Liu Hua of the DDG of UNA-China July 2013

  2. 摘要 Abstract 我的发言将主要包括三个部分: (My speech covers the following three parts:) 一是千年发展目标全球进展及其在融资问题上存在的主要挑战; (progress in implementation of MDGs at global level and the major challenges in financing) 二是介绍中国联合国协会与联合国开发计划署共同执行的千年发展目标国家咨询项目报告; (Introduction to China National Consultation process on Post-2015 International Development Agenda) 三是影响2015年国际发展议程的基本理念和应遵循的原则。(the main development concepts and principles in framing post-2015 international development agenda)

  3. 一、千年发展目标全球进展及融资挑战(Progess of Implementation of MDGs and Challenges in Financing for MDGs) (一)千年发展目标全球进展: (Progress in achieving the MDGs) 一是千年发展目标全球执行取得重大进展,一些目标已经实现。(significant progress has been made in terms of achieving MDGs. A number of important targets have been met,e.g. the global target of reducing extreme poverty in half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline, great contribution by China and India. Access to improved sources of drinking water, people living in slums, reducing child and maternal mortality and etc.) 二是进展很不平衡(The achievement of the MDGs has been uneven) 1、地域和国家进展不平衡,(uneven across and within regions and countries) 2、领域进展不平衡,(uneven among sectorial issues, progress has slowed in some areas, and a few of the goals remain out of reach) 3、国家内部人口群体之间存在不平衡。(uneven with communities and different groups, and those most marginalized and discriminated against on the basis of, inter alia, gender, age, disability have seen the least progress)

  4. 一、千年发展目标全球进展及融资挑战(Progess of Implementation of MDGsand Challenges in Financing for MDGs) (二)千年发展目标融资挑战:全球发展伙伴关系首次出现倒退迹象(Despite several important global targets being met ahead of the 2015 deadline, for the first time in many years aid shows a decline, warns a UN report)。 一是发展援助缺口巨大。(Huge gaps in development aid.) 二是贸易保护主义上升。(Protectionism on the rise. ) 三是基本药物需要更资金支持。(More funding for essential mdeicines.)

  5. 一、千年发展目标全球进展及融资挑战(Progess of Implementation of MDGsand Challenges in Financing for MDGs) (二)千年发展目标融资挑战之一:发展援助缺口巨大。(1)到位援助资金与承诺资金之间有1670亿美元的差距。由于经济危机,2013至2015年该缺口将继续上升。2005年八国集团英国鹰谷峰会向非洲国家承诺的至2010年250亿美元援款未兑现。2010年发展援助委员会国家援助资金比预期减少182亿美元。(A $167 billion gap between actual aid disbursement and the amounts committed, according to the report of the MDGs Gap TF. A delayed impact from the economic crisis on donor country budgets between 2013 and 2015 will threaten to further widen the delivery gap.At the 2005 G8 summit in Gleneagles, donor countries made commitments to increase aid to Africa by $25 billion a year by 2010. This target, however, was not met.

  6. 一、千年发展目标全球进展及融资挑战(Progess of Implementation of MDGs And Challenges in Financing for MDGs) (二)千年发展目标融资挑战之一:发展援助缺口巨大。(2)OECD国家中只有瑞典、挪威、卢森堡、丹麦和荷兰实现了0.7%GNI的援助目标。2013年联合国千年发展目标报告指出,总体援助金额减少对千年发展目标的实现造成影响,而最贫穷国家受到的不利影响最大。2012年,发达国家向发展中国家提供的净援助额为1260亿美元。按实际价值计算,比2011年减少4%,比2010年减少2%。2012年,向最不发达国家提供的双边ODA减少了13%。(Aid from DAC donors fell $18.2 billion short of the target. Only Sweden, Luxembourg, Demark and the Netherlands met UN target of 0.7% of GNI. Significant MDGs gain risk slowing under declining aid,and the poorest will bear the blunt. The net aid from N to S in 2012 is $126 billion, declining by 4% compared to 2011, 2% to 2010. The bilateral ODA to the LDCs in 2012 dropped by 13%. )

  7. 一、千年发展目标全球进展及融资挑战(Progess of Implementation of MDGs And Challenges in Financing for MDGs) (二)千年发展目标融资挑战之二:贸易保护主义上升。主要原因是全球经济持续放缓和下行风险。尽管20国集团承诺采取措施反对贸易保护主义,但2008年以来只有18%的贸易限制措施得以消除。目前新的贸易保护措施还在不断涌现。报告认为,贸易保护主义已对3%的全球贸易产生了不利影响。此外,全球贸易谈判停滞达11年之久,严重损害多边贸易体制,阻碍全球发展合作。 The UN Gap TF Report further finds the current economic situation has lured governments back into pursuing protectionist trade policies. Depite the pledges by G20 to resist protectinism, only 18% of the protectionist meaures intiated as a resurt of the global financial crisis have been eliminated.The protectionist measure taken sofar have affected almost 3% of the global trade. Negotiation for fairer multilateral trading system that are taking place under the Doha Round remain at an impasse 11 years after they have started, which is harmful for multilateral tradeing systme and consitute an obstacle for global development cooperation.

  8. 一、千年发展目标全球进展及融资挑战(Progess of Implementation of MDGs And Challenges in Financing for MDGs) (二)千年发展目标融资挑战之三:基本药物需要更资金支持。报告肯定了全球基金(GF)、GAVI的积极作用,但认为应做出更多努力保证特殊疾病防治有稳定资金来源,有关资金不应取代现有官方发展援助(ODA),而应成为新的资金来源渠道。报告还指出,发展中国家在促进基本药物可及性和可负担性方面进展有限。公共和私人医疗卫生机构基本药物可及性比例分别是51.8%和68.5%。发展中国家药品价格是国际参考价格的5倍多。报告认为,获得基本药物,特别是治疗慢性病的药物已成为发展中国家低收入家庭的严峻挑战。(Despite the global economic slowdown, new funding was pledged to the GF and GAVI. In broad sense, however, there has been little improvement in recent years in improving availability and affordability of essential nedicines in developing countries.Essential medicines appear to be available only in 51.8% of public and 68.5% of private health facilities. Prices of drugs in developing countries are about five times the international reference prices. As a result, obtaining essential medicines, especially for the treatment of chronic diseases, remains prohibitive for low-income families in developing countries.)

  9. 名人小组报告关于融资问题指出:Recommendations for Financing by HLP Report 为解决各国实现减贫和可持续发展的长期融资问题需在以下领域开展工作:完善政策环境,创新金融工具,开拓融资渠道;继续完善全球贸易体系建设,扩大发展中国家产品的市场准入;积极敦促发达国家履行ODA承诺;稳定国际金融市场,提高发展中国家的市场融资能力;推进反洗钱国际合作,打击跨境偷税漏税;加强发展中国家经济发展数据的准确性和透明度,提高发展资金的使用效率;推进各领域的技术创新和应用,加强技术转移。Recommendations by HLP report to create a global enabling environment and catalyse long-term finance: improve policy environment, explore new and innovative mechism for financing; support multilateral trading system, whicle improving market access of developing country products; urge developed countries to make concrete efforts towards the ODA targets; implement reforms to ensure stability of the global financial system, and enhance the capacity of developing countries for financing in market; reduce illicit flows and tax evasion and increase stolen-asset recovery; enhance the accuracy and transparency of the economic data in developing countries; improve the efficiency and effectiveness of development financial resources; promote collaboration on and access to science, technology, innovation and development data.

  10. (二)几个重要进程(Processes on Intenational Development Agenda beyond 2015) 一是2012年1月成立的后千年发展目标联合国系统工作小组;UN system task team on the post-2015 UN development agenda 二是2012年7月31日联合国秘书长潘基文发起成立了一个27人高级别名人小组;HLP 三是2012年6月里约峰会后,联大指定了一个30人工作组研究制定可持续发展目标(WG on SDGs); 四是2012年以来,联合国已在约100个发展中国家开展后千年发展目标国别咨询;national and global thematic consultations 五是2013年9月联合国将召开特别会议;special session of the GA to be held in September 2013) 六是从2013年9月至2015年,联合国将举行密集和高强度的政府间谈判。(governmental negotiations from 2013 to 2015)

  11. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况National Consultation on post-2015 International Development Agenda) 两次会议:联合国2015年后国际发展议程中国国别咨询项目共举行两次咨询研讨会,分别于去年年12月在云南和今年年3月在北京举行。Two consultation events were held in the National Consultation Process on Post-2015 Development Agenda (China).The first event was held in Yunnan on Dec.5, 2012. The second event was held in Beijing on Mar.11, 2013. 主办方:两次会议由中国联合国协会、联合国开发计划署驻华代表处、联合国驻华系统共同主办。 co-hosted by the United Nations Association of China (UNA-China), UNDP China office and the United Nations System in China.

  12. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况National Consultation on post-2015 International Development Agenda) 基本情况(Overview) 两次会议:联合国2015年后国际发展议程中国国别咨询项目共举行两次咨询研讨会,分别于去年年12月在云南和今年年3月在北京举行。Two consultation events were held in the National Consultation Process on Post-2015 Development Agenda (China).The first event was held in Yunnan on Dec.5, 2012. The second event was held in Beijing on Mar.11, 2013. 主办方:两次会议由中国联合国协会、联合国开发计划署驻华代表处、联合国驻华系统共同主办。 co-hosted by the United Nations Association of China (UNA-China), UNDP China office and the United Nations System in China.

  13. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况 两次会议总结了中国在上述领域取得的成绩及面临的挑战,结合联合国未来全球发展目标的标准及中国的发展战略,提出了后千年发展目标的重点合作领域及建议。会议认为,新的国际发展议程应对现有的千年发展目标有所继承和发扬,将重点放在还没有充分享受发展红利的弱势群体上,加强非政府组织的作用,呼吁政府加强与各利益攸关方合作,形成合力。 Both meetings reviewed the progress made and challenges faced by China in implementing MDGs. In line with the blueprint of the MDGs and China's national development strategy, the meetings identified the priority areas and suggestions for China to participate in the future negotiations on the post-2015 interntional development agenda. It was emphasized that the continuity should be observed, with focuses on spreading the benefits to the marginalized groups, engaging more active participation by NGOs, urging governments and all other stakerholders or players to have closer cooperation.

  14. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况National Consultation on post-2015 International Development Agenda) 基本情况(Overview) 参与者:云南会议有来自外交部等3个中央政府部门、辽宁省发改委等2个地方政府部门、联合国驻华机构、北京、云南及多省市的34个民间团体、社会组织及研究机构等约50人参会。北京会议有来自全国各地55个民间团体、企业、研究机构以及外交部、商务部、财政部、环保部等10个中央政府部门和联合国开发计划署、国际劳工组织、联合国环境规划署、联合国教科文组织、世界粮食规划署、联合国艾滋病规划署等14个驻华机构代表120余人与会,其中民间团体和学术机构代表70余人,女性代表50余人,少数民族代表、残疾人代表等也出席了会议。 About 50 delegates from 3 central government agencies (including MFA) and 2 local government agencies, UN Country Team in China, and 34 scholars, social organizations and research agencies participated in the Yunan symposium.A total of over 120 participants representing 55 NGOs, private sectors and research institutions in China, 10 ministries, including MFA, MOFCOM, MF and MEP, and the China office of 14 international organizations, including UNDP, UNESCO,UNEP, WFP and UNAIDS attended Beijing meeting. The participants included more than 70 representatives of NGOs and institutions, over 50 women representatives, and representatives of the ethnic minority and disabled communities.

  15. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议:二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议: (一)在扶贫领域,中国国别报告建议,后2015年国际发展议程应继续重视扶贫问题,并增加关注一些新领域:(1)促进社会公平和公正,贫困人口参与扶贫资源分配决策。(2)残疾人政策主流化,设立对残疾人的专门指标。如进一步颁布促进残疾人教育、就业、社会保障的法律法规。(3)设立对流动人口扶贫方面的专门指标。中国政府制定的贫困政策更多是针对农村社区和城市人口,很少有针对流动人口贫困问题的研究和政策。 In poverty erradication area, (1)promote social fairness and equality, and let poverty people take part in poverty alleviating resource distribution decision. (2)Make disability policy in the mainstream and set indicators specifically for disabled people. (3)Set special indicators for migrating people.

  16. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议:二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议: (一)在扶贫领域,(4)通过基层力量加强文化交流。针对少数民族、结合少数民族地方特点,形成当地社区主导型的发展机制,积极调动当地老百姓。通过当地老百姓实现基于文化的自我发展模式。(5)注重基层草根民间组织的培育,促进非政府组织与政府部门形成反贫困合力。(6)将促进增长和就业相结合。(7)制订公平收入分配方案,加强社会保障体系建设。(8)将减灾和人道主义援助纳入减贫战略,防止因灾返贫、因病返贫。 (4)Strengthen communication and cooperation among NGOs. (5)Focus on nurturing basic community public organizations, promoting NGOs and government divisions to formulate power to fight against poverty. (6)Combine encouraging growth with promoting employment. (7)Build a scheme for fair income and strengthen social protection system construction.(8) Take disaster reduction and humanitarian assistance into poverty alleviation strategy to protect people in natural disaster or illness from falling into poverty.

  17. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议:二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议: (二)在教育领域,报告建议,(1)关注教育公平,缩小教育差距,包括城乡、地区、民族、性别之间的差距。(2)推进学前教育,促进家庭教育的发展水平提高。(3)提高教育质量,促进满足各类人群各年龄阶段需求教育的发展。(4)关注农村儿童心理教育。(4)改进教学内容和教学模式,强调技能。(5)提高教师质量及职业忠诚度。(6)关注边缘群体教育。 In area of education, suggestions are as follows: (1)Focus on education equalityand narrowing education gap, including gap between urban and rural, district, ethnic andgender. (2)Increase education quality and promote a kind of education development which meets the need of every person in different age phases. (3)Emphasize on psychological education for children.(4) Improve education curriculum and style, and emphasize on skills. (5)Improve teachers’ quality and professional loyalty. (6)Focus on marginal groups’ education.

  18. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议suggestions by national consultation report: (三)在环境领域,报告建议:(1)将环境指标与国民经济生产相结合。(2)水资源的保护,增设体系水资源匮乏、饮用水安全的指标。(3)跨区域合作与宣传。(4)注重环境管理质量。(5)将应对气候变化和防御自然灾害结合起来。(6)蓝空战略和蓝海战略。(7)加强对环保资金、人力的投入,大力发展绿色信贷的引导作用。(8)提倡绿色经济发展模式。防灾减灾。(9)加强环境教育;(10)关注非传染病、人口增长等新的社会问题引发的环境问题。 In the area of environment, (1)Combine environment indicators with national economy production. (2)Protect water resources. Add indicators that can show the deficiency of water resources and drinking water safety.(3)Promote cross-regional cooperation and education. (4)Focus on environmental management quality. (5)Combine dealing with climate change with preventing natural disasters. (6)Promote blue sky and blue sea strategy. (7)Invest more in environment protection and develop the leading role of green credit greatly. (8)Promote the develop style of green economy. Disaster prevention and mitigation, such as public coverage in catastrophic events and service information. (9)Strengthen environment education; increase participation for environment protection and control in citizen communities. (10)Focus on environment problems aroused by new social problems such as non-infectious diseases and population growth

  19. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议:二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议: (四)在卫生领域,报告建议:(1)保留现代化发展目标中有关儿童和妇女、重大疾病的目标,关注地区差距。(2)增加防控慢性病目标。实施卫生公平性,实现覆盖全民的基本医疗卫生服务,提高医疗服务质量。(3)消除因环境污染引发的健康问题。增加关注新发传染病的控制性指标。(4)加强艾滋病防控,控制艾滋病感染率、药物治疗的覆盖率和消除社会歧视。关注慢病,如精神健康、心理卫生。(4)关注饮用水安全。加强农村基础设施、安全饮用水消毒的管理措施。(5)关注跨境疾病。 In area of health, (1)keep the goals on major diseases in MDGs, and concentrate on gap between areas. (2)Ensure the health equity, achieve universal coverage of basic health services, and improve the quality of medical services. (3)Eliminate the health problems caused by environmental pollution. (4) Increase the controlling indicators on new infectious diseases.Strengthen AIDS prevention and medication coverage, eliminate social discrimination. Pay attention to mental health. (5)Pay attention to the safety of drinking water. Pay attention to cross-border diseases

  20. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议:二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议: (五)在妇女领域,报告建议:(1)保留专门的目标,促进性别平等,赋予妇女权利。(2)加强对弱势妇女群体权益的保护,关注流动妇女、老龄妇女及经济发展比较落后地区的妇女发展问题。(3)消除妇女的暴力,包括社会暴力和家庭暴力。注重儿童的权益。(4)性别平等主流化,各个领域专门设置针对妇女发展的指标。 In area of women,(1)specific goals should be reserved, which promote gender equality and endow rights to women. (2)Strengthen the protection of the rights and interests of vulnerable groups of women. Focus on the development of migrant women, older women and women of backward areas. (3)Eliminate violence against women, including social and domestic violence. (4)Focus on the rights of children. Promote gender mainstreaming, and set development indicators for women in diverse fields.

  21. 二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议:二、千年发展目标中国国家咨询项目情况之主要建议: (六)在国际发展合作领域,报告建议:(1)推动多边贸易体制合作。推进贸易自由化,扩大市场开放,让更多的发展中国家从多边贸易体制中获益。(2)关注全球性公共产品等新领域。在国际合作的框架下有策略、有步骤的应对21世纪的新挑战,如粮食安全、气候变化、能源危机、环境保护等新问题。(3)建立健全公平合理的国际性体系,加强各机构的协调与合作。(4)国际金融体系改革,建立健全多元化的国际货币体系,适当增加发展中国家发言权与代表性。(5)发展中国家更加开放,融入到了经济全球化和区域经济一体化的分工。(6)加强发展融资,如增加筹资规模、创新融资工具、发展公私合作机制。(7)为全球经济合作建立均衡的、可操作性的、可查的指标。 In area of global partnership, (1)Promote the cooperation of the multilateral trading system. (2)Focus on new areas such as global public goods. Establish a robust, fair and reasonable international system. Build a pluralistic, democratic, multilateral world system. (3)Reform the international financial system. (4)Establish a fair, equitable, tolerant and orderly international financial and trade order.(5)Developing countries should be more open and participate in the division of economic globalization and regional economic integration. (6)Urge the implementation of foreign assistance goals, in both financial and technical terms. (7)Build balanced, operative indicators for global economic cooperation.

  22. 三、主导2015年国际发展议程的发展理念与基本原则三、主导2015年国际发展议程的发展理念与基本原则 (一)发展理念:第一,全面与均衡的发展观;第二,稳定、公平与包容的发展观;第三,以人为本的民生发展观;第四,多利益攸关方主义的发展观。 Basic development concepts in framing the Post-MDGs: comprehensive, inclusive, people-centered, and multistakerholderism.

  23. 三、主导2015年国际发展议程的发展理念与基本原则三、主导2015年国际发展议程的发展理念与基本原则    (二)基本原则:中国民间组织认为,国际社会应该坚持公平但有区别的原则。应该坚持统筹平衡的发展原则,应该继续坚持南北合作的主渠道地位。应该加强发展筹资,加强对发展中国家的资金和技术支持。应加强民间组织在落实后千年发展目标中的参与度。建立衡量企业社会责任的指标,推动可持续发展。应继续以消除贫困为核心,尊重各国发展阶段与国情,平衡经济、社会与赶赴发展目标。 Principles emphasized by consultation: The international community should observe the principle of fairness and diversity. Observe the principle of integrated and balanced development. Stick to the international principles of fairness, and remain committed to North-South cooperation, which should act as the main channel. Solve the problem of lack of resources for development and unfavorable implementation of mechanisms effectively, and financing for development should be strengthened. Strengthen the participation of NGOs in the implementation of Post-MDGs. Establish indicators to measure the corporate social responsibility and push forward sustainable development.Poverty alleviation, health, environment, education and women, these five issues should be coordinated to jointly promote the international cooperation.

  24. 2015年后国际发展议事中国国别咨询项目情况及有关融资挑战2015年后国际发展议事中国国别咨询项目情况及有关融资挑战 谢谢大家 Thank you.