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Schools

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  1. Chapter Title 11 Schools “The whole art of teaching is only the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds.” — Anatole France French Novelist, 20th Century

  2. Transitions in Schooling • Middle to Junior High School = Stress • Puberty • Formal operational thought • Responsibility and independence • Impersonal school structure • Heterogeneous set of peers • Focus on assessment

  3. Transitions in Schooling • What Makes a Successful Middle School / Carnegie Report Recommendations • Develop smaller communities • Lower students-to-counselor ratio • Involve parents and community • Develop better curricula • Team-teach in flexible blocks, integrating several disciplines • Boost students’ health and fitness

  4. The American High School • New Mission for the 21st Century • Enable all students to graduate • Higher expectations for student achievement • Provide students with higher quality work experiences • Increase coordination and communication K-12

  5. High School Dropouts Fig. 11.3

  6. Causes of Dropping Out • School-related problems • Economic reasons • Socioeconomic status • Friends drop out • Personal reasons

  7. Reducing the Dropout Rate • “I Have a Dream” Foundation • Reduce barriers between school and work

  8. Transition from High School to College • More impersonal school structure • Other demands • Focus on assessment • Reduced contact with parents

  9. Transition from College to Work • May lack vocationally-specific skills • Difficulty obtaining a job

  10. Changing Social Developmental Contexts • Preschool • Elementary School • Secondary Level

  11. Size and Climate of Schools • School Size and Classroom Size • Classroom Climate • Strategies of Classroom Management • Authoritative • Authoritarian • Permissive

  12. Person-Environment Fit • Teachers and Parents • Interactions with Teachers • Teacher traits • Understand development • Parents and Schools • Involvement is important

  13. Peers • Structure of middle school • Peer statuses • Bullying • Friendship • Crowds

  14. Bullying Behaviors Among U.S. Youth Peers Fig. 11.4

  15. Culture • Socioeconomic Status • Barriers to Learning • Ethnicity • School Segregation • Jigsaw Classroom

  16. Cross-Cultural Comparisons • Secondary Schools • School begins at age 6 or 7 • Stay in school until 14-17 years old • Divided into levels • Entrance exams in Japan only • Sports important in US only • College