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Chapter 6. Crafting Business Strategy for Dynamic Contexts . OBJECTIVES . 1. Identify the challenges to sustainable competitive advantage in dynamic contexts . 2. Understand the fundamental dynamics of competition. 3.

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Chapter 6 l.jpg

Chapter 6

Crafting Business Strategy for Dynamic Contexts


Objectives l.jpg
OBJECTIVES

1

  • Identify the challenges to sustainable competitive advantage in dynamic contexts

2

  • Understand the fundamental dynamics of competition

3

  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of choosing a first-mover strategy

4

  • Analyze and develop strategies for managing industry evolution

5

  • Analyze and develop strategies for technological discontinuities

6

  • Analyze and develop strategies for high-speed environmental change

7

  • Explain the implications of a dynamic strategy for the strategy diamond and strategy implementation


The tale of napster l.jpg

  • Roxio and iTunes sell single songs

  • A la carte

  • Sold to

  • Unlimited downloadsfor $9.99/month

  • Subscription

  • Business sold

  • Real-network's Rhap-sody lets music lovers listen as much as they want for one monthly fee

  • Software

  • Streaming

  • Software

THE TALE OF NAPSTER

  • Business model options

  • Napster

  • Music

  • Software and music

  • Software

  • Music

  • Roxio

  • Sonic solutions


Three causes of dynamic contexts l.jpg

  • Mini-mills entered with a new business model and incumbent steel companies did not respond

  • As industries evolve and competition shifts from differentiation to price/low-cost, advantages shift between rivals

  • Arm and Hammer almost lost its lead position when baking soda became commoditized

  • When technological change is discontinuous, it does not sustain existing leaders advantages

  • The shift to digital photography favors the strengths of Sony not photography incumbent like Kodak

THREE CAUSES OF DYNAMIC CONTEXTS

  • Examples

  • CompetitiveInteraction

  • Industryevolution

  • Technologicalchange


Phases of competitive interaction l.jpg

  • Phase 1Discoveryand competitive new action

  • Phase 2Customer reaction

  • Phase 3 Competitor reaction

  • Phase 4 Evaluation of action and reaction effectiveness

PHASES OF COMPETITIVE INTERACTION

Source: Adapted from K.G. Smith, W.J. Ferrier, and C.M. Grimm, “King of the Hill: Dethroning the Industry Leader,” Academy of Management Executive 15:2 (2001), 59-70


The spectrum of competitive responses strategies l.jpg
THE SPECTRUM OF COMPETITIVE RESPONSES STRATEGIES

  • Difficult

  • Ease with threat can be controlled

  • Containment/Neutralization/Shaping/Absorption/Annulment

  • Great

“Any firm that invests in resources and capabilities that support retaliation to the exclusion of innovation and change may only be prolonging its inevitable demise”

  • Limited

  • Extensive

  • Scope of response


Containment l.jpg
CONTAINMENT

  • Containment

  • Limit the extent to which the new entrant’s innovation impacts your business

  • For example:American Airlines can partially contain Southwest by using its bargaining power to secure more exclusive airport gates

  • Neutralization

  • Shaping

  • Absorption

  • Annulment


Neutralization l.jpg
NEUTRALIZATION

  • Containment

  • Try to short-circuit the moves of innovators or new entrants before they make them

  • For example:The Recording Industry Association of America launched such a fierce legal attack on Napster that it forced even smaller Napster-like firms to stay out of the fray

  • Neutralization

  • Shaping

  • Absorption

  • Annulment


Shaping l.jpg
SHAPING

  • Containment

  • Shape the innovation so it becomes something the incumbent can live with or even benefit from

  • For example:For years the American Medical Association used regulators to attack chiropractors; now they shape chiropractic medicine to become a complement to traditional medicine

  • Neutralization

  • Shaping

  • Absorption

  • Annulment


Absorption l.jpg
ABSORPTION

  • Containment

  • Minimize the risks entailed by being either a first mover or an imitator

  • For example:In the late 1980s Microsoft purchased Intuit, the maker of Quicken and QuickBooks; because it identified money-management software as a high-growth opportunity.

  • Neutralization

  • Shaping

  • Absorption

  • Annulment


Annulment l.jpg
ANNULMENT

  • Containment

  • Improve incumbent products and services to annul an innovation or new entrant’s offering

  • For example:Kodak has improved the quality of its film-based prints so that they are superior to many digital-based alternatives

  • Neutralization

  • Shaping

  • Absorption

  • Annulment


Pros and cons of first movers l.jpg
PROS AND CONS OF FIRST MOVERS

  • A first-mover is often better off than a fast follower when:

  • A first-follower is often better off than a first mover when:

  • It achieves absolute cost advantage

  • Rapid technology advances allow a fast-follower to leapfrog the first mover

  • Its reputation and image advantages are hard to copy

  • The first mover’s offering strikes a chord but is flawed

  • Its customers are locked in (i.e., switching costs exist)

  • The first mover lacks a key complement (e.g., channel access) that the follower possesses

  • Scale of the first move makes imitation unlikely

  • First-mover costs outweigh the advantages of being the first-move


A gallery of first movers and fast followers l.jpg

  • DeLaRue (1967)

  • Docutel (1969)

  • Diebold (1971)

  • IBM (1973)

  • NCR (1974)

  • The first movers were small entrepreneurial upstarts that faced two types of competitors: (1) larger firms with experience selling to banks and (2) the computer giants. The first movers did not survive

  • Ballpoint pens

  • Reynolds (1945)

  • Eversharp (1946)

  • Parker (1954)

  • Bic (1960)

  • The pioneers disappeared when the fad first ended in the late 1940s. Parker entered 8 years later. Bic entered last and sold pens as cheap disposables

  • Commercial jets

  • DeHaviland (1952)

  • Boeing (1958)

  • Douglas (1958)

  • The pioneers rushed to market with a jet that crashed frequently. Boeing and Douglas (later known as McDonnell-Douglas) followed with safer, larger, and more powerful jets unsullied by tragic crashes

  • Credit cards

  • Diners club (1950)

  • Visa/Master-Card (1966)

  • American Express (1968)

  • The first mover was undercapitalized in a business in which money is the key resource. American Express entered last with funds and name recognition from its traveler’s check business

  • Diet soda

  • Kirsch’s No-Cal(1952)

  • Royal Crown’s Diet

  • Rite Cola (1962)

  • Pepsi’s Patio Cola (1963)

  • Coke’s Tab (1964)

  • Diet Pepsi (1964)

  • Diet Coke (1982)

  • The first mover could not match the distribution advantages of Coke and Pepsi. Nor did it have the money or marketing expertise needed for massive promotional campaigns

A GALLERY OF FIRST-MOVERS AND FAST FOLLOWERS

  • Imitators/fast followers

  • Product

  • Pioneer(s)

  • Comments


A gallery of first movers and fast followers cont l.jpg

  • Rheingold’s and Gablinger’s (1968)

  • Meister Brau Lite(1967)

  • Miller Lite (1975)

  • Natural light (1977)

  • Coors light (1978)

  • Bud light (1982)

  • The first movers entered 9 years before Miller and 16 years before Budweiser, but financial problems drove both out of business. Marketing and distribution determined the outcome. Costly legal battles, again requiring access to capital, were commonplace

  • PC operating systems

  • CP/M (1974)

  • Microsoft DOS (1981)

  • Microsoft Windows (1985)

  • The first mover set the early industry standard but did not upgrade for the IBM PC. Microsoft bought an imitative upgrade and became the new standard. Windows entered later and borrowed heavily from predecessors (and competitor Apple), then emerged as the leading interface

  • Video games

  • Magnavox’s Odyssey (1972)

  • Atan’s Pong (1972)

  • Nintendo (1985)

  • Sega (1989)

  • Microsoft (1998)

  • The market went from boom to bust to boom. The bust occurred when home computers seemed likely to make video games obsolete. Kids lost interest when games lacked challenge. Price competition ruled. Nintendo rekindled interest with better games and restored market order with managed competition. Microsoft entered with its Xbox when perceived gaming to be a possible component of its wired world

A GALLERY OF FIRST-MOVERS AND FAST FOLLOWERS (CONT.)

  • Imitators/fast followers

  • Product

  • Pioneer(s)

  • Comments

Source: Adapted from S. Schnaars, Managing Imitation Strategies (New York Free Press, 1994), 37-43


Evaluating a firm s first mover dependencies on industry complements l.jpg

  • Value-creation opportunities favor the holder of complementary assets, who will probably pursue a fast-follower strategy

  • First mover can do well depending on the execution of its strategy

  • Value will go either to first mover or to party with the most bargaining power

EVALUATING A FIRM’S FIRST-MOVER DEPENDENCIESON INDUSTRY COMPLEMENTS

  • Status of complementary assets

  • Tightly held and important

  • Freely available or unimportant

  • Weak protection from imitation

  • Bases of first mover advantages

  • Strong protection from imitation


Strategies for managing commoditization l.jpg

Timken bundles commodity product with key components may simply give new product or service away as part of its larger bundle of offerings

Dell sells directly toconsumers

K-mart and KB Toys both reduced number of customers when they restructured

Hotels may charge extra forcable TV and computer hookups

STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING COMMODITIZATION

Examples

Value-in-useapproach

Anticipating

Processinnovation

approach

Managingcommoditization

Marketfocus

Responding

Service

innovation


Effect of technological disruption l.jpg

Performance may simply give new product or service away as part of its larger bundle of offerings

Maturity

Maturity

Growth

Disruption

Growth

Embryonic

Embryonic

Time

EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGICAL DISRUPTION


Four actions framework key to the value curve l.jpg

Eliminate may simply give new product or service away as part of its larger bundle of offerings

Create/Add

What factors that theindustry has taken forgranted should be eliminated?

What factors that the industry has never offered should be created or added?

FOUR ACTIONS FRAMEWORK: KEY TO THE VALUE CURVE

Reduce

The key to discovering a new value curve lies in answering four basic questions

What factors should be reduced well below the industry standard?

Creating new markets:

A new value curve

Raise

Cirque du Soleil example

What factors should be raised well above the industry standard?

Source: Adapted from W.C. Kim and R. Mauborgne, “Blue Ocean Strategy,” California Management Review 47:3 (2005), 105-121


High and low end disruption l.jpg

High-end may simply give new product or service away as part of its larger bundle of offerings

Low-end

HIGH AND LOW-END DISRUPTION

Strategy that may result in huge new markets in which new players redefine industry rules to unseat the largest incumbents

Strategy that appears at the low end of industry offerings, targeting the least desirable of incumbents’ customers


Value curve for u s wine industry yellow tail l.jpg

  • Expensive wines may simply give new product or service away as part of its larger bundle of offerings

  • Yellow tail

  • Cheap wines

VALUE CURVE for U.S. WINE INDUSTRY – YELLOW TAIL

  • High

  • Low

  • Price

  • Above-the-linemarketing

  • Vineyardprestige

  • Winerange

  • Ease ofselection

  • Use of technicalwine terminology

  • Agingquality

  • Winecomplexity

  • Easydrinkability

  • Fun andadventure


Conventional vs new market creation strategic mindsets l.jpg

Emphasizes rivalry may simply give new product or service away as part of its larger bundle of offerings

Emphasizes substitutes across industries

Emphasizes competitive position within group and segments

Looks across groups and segments

Emphasizes better buyer service

Emphasizes redefinition of the buyer and buyer’s preferences

Emphasizes product or service value and offerings within industry definition

Emphasizes complementary products and services within and across industries and segments

Emphasizes efficient operation of the model

Emphasizes rethinking of the industry business model

Emphasizes adaptation and capa-bilities that support competitive retaliation

Emphasizes strategic intent-seeking to shape the external environment over time

CONVENTIONAL VS. NEW MARKET-CREATION STRATEGIC MINDSETS

Dimensions of competition

Head-to-Head competition

New-market creation

Industry

Strategic group andindustry segments

Buyers

Product and service offerings

Business model

Time


Some well known disruptions l.jpg

Microsoft took 15 years to grow from boutique software firm to Goliath

Atari grew from $50 million to $1.6billion over 5 years, doubling every year

Compaq grew from zero revenues to $ 1billionin 5 years

SOME WELL-KNOWN DISRUPTIONS


Creating options for future competitive advantage and profitability l.jpg

Profit to Goliath

Horizon 3

Seed options for future growth business

Tactical probing

Horizon 2

Drives growth in emerging new business

Horizon 1

Defend and extend current business

Time

CREATING OPTIONS FOR FUTURE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND PROFITABILITY


Improvisation and simple rules l.jpg
IMPROVISATION AND SIMPLE RULES to Goliath

Just as Jazz musicians can improvise when they play together because they follow a set of simple rules ...

... corporations can become more flexible by allowing improvisation under a set of simple rules

Simple rules

  • Customer is always right

  • Always run highest profitability products

  • Never


Tactical probing operational tactics can become strategically important l.jpg

Tactical initiatives to Goliath

Merrill lynch discount initiative

  • Futures – trading

  • Simplified mutual-fund offerings

Though some initia-tives failed, several enabled Charles Schwab to further differentiate itself from its bare-bones competition

  • Internet products services

  • Credit cards

û

  • Outline mortgage

E* Trade

TACTICAL PROBING OPERATIONAL TACTICS CAN BECOME STRATEGICALLY IMPORTANT

Charles

Schwab


Staging and pacing in the real world l.jpg
STAGING AND PACING IN THE REAL WORLD to Goliath

“Five years is the maximum that you can go without refreshing the brand ... We did it (relaunched Club Europe Service) because we wanted to stay ahead so that we could continue to win customers”

British Airways

“In each of the last three years we’ve introduced more than 100 major new products, which is about 70% above our pace of the early 1990s. We plan to maintain this rate and, overall, have targeted increasing new products to (equal) 35% of total sales”

Emerson Electric

The inventor of Moore’s Law stated that the power of the computer chip would double every 18 months. IBM builds a new manufacturing facility every nine months. “We build factories two years in advance of needing them, before we have the products to run in them, and before we know the industry is going to grow”

Intel

40% of Gillette’s sales every five years must come from entirely new products (prior to its acquisition by P&G). Gillette raises prices at a pace set to match price increases in a basket of market goods (which includes items such as a newspaper, a candy bar, and a can of soda). Gillette prices are never raised faster than the price of the market basket.

Gillette

30% of sales must come from products that are fewer than 4 years old

3M

Source: S. Brown and K. Eisenhardt, Competing on the Edge: Strategy as Structure Chaos (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998)


Real options five categories l.jpg

  • Waiting-to-invest options. The value of waiting to build a factory until better market information comes along may exceed the value of immediate expansion

  • Growth options. An entry investment may create opportunities to pursue valuable follow-up projects

  • Flexibility options. Serving markets on two continents by building two plants instead of one gives a firm the option of switching production from one plant to the other as conditions dictate

  • Exit (or abandonment) options. The option to walk away from a project in response to new information increases its value

  • Learning options. An initial investment may generate further information about a market opportunity and may help to determine whether the firm should add more capacity

REAL OPTIONS – FIVE CATEGORIES


The value of real options l.jpg
THE VALUE OF REAL OPTIONS factory until better market information comes along may exceed the value of immediate expansion

DCF value

Value ofreal options

Total busi-ness value

Current businessvalue

Real-options value

Total businessvalue

+

=

Source: L.E.K. Consulting LLC, Shareholder Value Added: Making Real Decisions with Real Options (Accessed September 12, 2005), www.lek.com/ideas/publications/sva 16.pdf.


Summary l.jpg
SUMMARY factory until better market information comes along may exceed the value of immediate expansion

1

  • Identify the challenges to sustainable competitive advantage in dynamic contexts

2

  • Understand the fundamental dynamics of competition

3

  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of choosing a first-mover strategy

4

  • Analyze and develop strategies for managing industry evolution

5

  • Analyze and develop strategies for technological discontinuities

6

  • Analyze and develop strategies for high-speed environmental change

7

  • Explain the implications of a dynamic strategy for the strategy diamond and strategy implementation


Exercises l.jpg
EXERCISES factory until better market information comes along may exceed the value of immediate expansion

  • If you were the CEO of Napster, what material from this chapter would be most relevant to you? How might it help you formulate strategy? What might the key components of the strategy be? How should Microsoft use this chapter to formulate a strategic response to Napster?

  • Consider first and second mover advantages. What specific resources and capabilities do you think successful first and second movers must possess? Do you think a firm could be both a first mover and fast follower if it wanted to be?

  • Choose an industry you believe is very dynamic and identify the drivers of that dynamism. Now pick a firm in that industry and formulate a strategy and basic implementation scheme to exploit its dynamic context


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