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Standards-Based Science Assessment. Ohio’s Science Cognitive Demands.

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ohio s science cognitive demands
Ohio’s Science Cognitive Demands

Science is more than a body of knowledge. It must not be misperceived as lists of topics to be covered in the six standards in Ohio’s Academic Content Standards, K-12 Science. Holistically, science is a way of studying the natural world.

cognitive demand
Cognitive Demand

Every Ohio achievement test item for science is classified on the basis of what the item asks of the student in terms of reasoning, evaluating investigative procedures, understanding science concepts or analyzing scientific information and technological solutions

cognitive demand1
Cognitive Demand

Distributing items across the types of cognitive demand ensures a balance of ways for students to demonstrate science skills and understandings

types of cognitive demand
Types of Cognitive Demand
  • Recall / Identify Accurate Science
  • Communicate Understanding / Analyze
  • Science Information
  • Demonstrate Investigative Processes
  • of Science
  • Apply Concepts / Make Relevant
  • Connections with Science
types of cognitive demand1
Types of Cognitive Demand
  • Recall / Identify Accurate Science
  • Students provide and identify accurate
  • statements about previously learned,
  • scientifically valid facts, concepts and
  • relationships
  • Teachers use a variety of motivators to engage
  • students’ thinking to help them access
  • previously learned science knowledge and
  • skills
types of cognitive demand2
Types of Cognitive Demand
  • Communicate Understanding / Analyze Science Information
  • Students analyze scientific information and
  • communicate scientifically, given rich investigative
  • scenarios and valid scientific data and information
  • Teachers use questioning and science content
  • knowledge and content-pedagogy to facilitate
  • exploration of standards-based questions, challenge
  • misconceptions and help students develop scientifically
  • valid conceptions and explanations
types of cognitive demand3
Types of Cognitive Demand
  • Demonstrate Investigative Processes of Science
  • Students use scientific inquiry skills, grounded
  • in standards-based science content
  • Teachers integrate the teaching of standards
  • for Scientific Inquiry and Scientific Ways of
  • Knowing into opportunities for students to
  • conduct investigations aligned with the content
  • standards
types of cognitive demand4
Types of Cognitive Demand
  • Apply Concepts / Make Relevant Connections with Science
  • Students apply science in the context of individuals and
  • society and scientifically analyze consequences and
  • alternatives, given real-world situations and
  • technological problem-solving scenarios
  • Teachers integrate the teaching of standards for
  • Science and Technology, Scientific Inquiry and
  • Scientific Ways of Knowing into opportunities to help
  • students contextualize and expand understandings of
  • science content standards
implications for instruction
Implications for Instruction

Employing instructional strategies that allow students a variety of ways to demonstrate their science skills and understandings can improve learning and performance on Ohio’s standards-based assessments

statewide assessment
Statewide Assessment

Factors that affect student performance on statewide assessment items

  • Student Ability
  • Item Attributes
  • Random Factors
ogt spring 2005 data
OGT Spring 2005 Data
  • Multiple choice item on which Ohio students performed the lowest
    • Physical Science
    • Recalling / Identifying Accurate Science
    • 25% of students responded correctly
ogt spring 2005 data1
OGT Spring 2005 Data
  • Multiple choice item on which Ohio students performed the highest
    • Life Science
    • Communicating Understanding / Analyzing Science Information
    • 90% of students responded correctly
student performance
Student Performance

Characteristics of Items that may Impact

Individual Student Performance

  • Standard and benchmark
    • What content is covered?
  • Format of item
    • How is the information presented?
      • Passage-based or not passage-based
      • Multiple-choice, short-answer, extended-response
      • Cluster-based or not cluster-based
  • Cognitive demand
    • What does the task require in terms of student thinking?
  • Random factors
preliminary analysis of spring 2005 ogt data
Preliminary Analysis of Spring 2005 OGT Data
  • Student performance on constructed response items is significantly lower than performance on similar multiple choice items
  • Student performance is not significantly different across standards or benchmarks
  • Student performance appears to be impacted by item cognitive demand
preliminary analysis
Preliminary Analysis

Research suggests that student achievement is positively impacted by:

  • Teaching for transfer by providing students with a variety of tasks
  • Varying the complexity of tasks and emphasizing higher-order thinking skills
  • Teaching for mastery and helping students reflect on their learning

D. W. Tileston. ( 2000.) Ten Best Teaching Practices

R. J. Marzano. (2003.) What Works in Schools

preliminary analysis1
Preliminary Analysis

Research suggests that student

achievement is positively impacted by:

  • Ensuring multiple exposure to, and complex interactions with knowledge
  • Comparing classroom or individual student data to statewide data to reveal gaps in instruction or student experience

D. W. Tileston. ( 2000.) Ten Best Teaching Practices

R. J. Marzano. (2003.) What Works in Schools

cognitive demand2
Cognitive Demand

How can understanding cognitive demand inform classroom instruction to improve student performance?

slide20

Aligning to the Standards

Click on the following links to learn more about:

The Learning Cycle and Classroom Inquiry

Standards-based Science Instruction

Standards-based Science Assessment

Teacher Tools for Reflecting on Teaching Science

Student Tools for Reflecting on Learning Science

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