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A BALANCED DIET is essential for this to take place. However, individuals will choose a diet which is SPECIFIC to their needs. UNIT 1 - Information. People exercise to. Foster a healthy lifestyle. Improve fitness and/or sporting performance. Any physical activity requires:.

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slide1
A BALANCED DIET is essential for this to take place.

However, individuals will choose a diet which is SPECIFIC to their needs.

UNIT 1 - Information

People exercise to

  • Foster a healthy lifestyle
  • Improve fitness and/or sporting performance
slide2
Any physical activity requires:

UNIT 1 - Information

ENERGY EXPENDITURE

The amount of energy needed depends on:

The type of sport exercise

Duration of the activity

Intensity of the activity

Three other factors which contribute to Energy Needs are:

slide3

BODY

TYPE

UNIT 1 - Information

Three other factors which contribute to Energy Needs are:

AGE

As you age your metabolism slows down –

You need to eat less or you will gain weight

SEX

Males usually need more energy than females

LIFESTYLE

The more active you are, the more energy you need

slide4
BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR)

The amount of energy needed just to keep you alive.

BMR varies from one person to the next.

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL (PAL) OR WORKING ENERGY

The amount of energy needed for physical activity/ sport

TOTAL ENERGY NEEDS = BMR + PAL

(measured in kilojoules/ kilocalories)

UNIT 1 - Information

GCSE Physical Education

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FOOD FUELS THE BODY

Provides ENERGY for physical activity

REPAIRS injured tissue

Helps in GROWTH of body tissue

Contributes to GOOD HEALTH

UNIT 1 - Information

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1. ENERGY BALANCE

Energy in = Energy out

Taking in (eating) = Using up (physical activity)

calories calories

WEIGHT STAYS CONSTANT

UNIT 1 - Information

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2.

Energy in Energy used

WEIGHT GAINED

3.

Energy in Energy used

WEIGHT LOST

UNIT 1 - Information

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BALANCED DIET

A balanced diet is based around ‘GOOD FOODS’ e.g. eating 5 vegetables/fruits per day

A balanced diet consists of 7 components

A balanced diet should meet the needs of the individual

UNIT 1 - Information

slide9

UNIT 1 - Information

Fats

Carbohydrates

Protein

Water

BALANCED DIET

Fibre

Vitamins

Minerals

Protein

15%

Fats

30% - 25%

Carbohydrates

55% - 60%

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CARBOHYDRATES

Main source of ENERGY for working muscles

Broken down into GLUCOSE and stored as GLYCOGEN in the liver and muscles

Carbohydrates are an IMMEDIATE energy source

SIMPLE carbohydrates : SUGAR – biscuits, cakes, sugar

COMPLEX carbohydrates : STARCH – pasta, potatoes, bread

It is important to stock up on carbohydrate after exercise to replace that which has been used

Excess carbohydrate is stored in the body as FAT

UNIT 1 - Information

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FATS

Fats are a form of STORED ENERGY, released SLOWLY when there is a lack of carbohydrates (glycogen)

Extra fat is stored just under the skin

Extra fat can lead to:

OBESITY HIGH CHOLESTROL LEVELS

(HEART / CIRCULATORY PROBLEMS)

Fats are used during AEROBIC work (O2 is present)

SATURATED fats: milk, meat, biscuits

POLY UNSATURATED fats: fish, nuts

UNIT 1 - Information

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PROTEINS

Used as an energy source only when carbohydrates and fat stores have depleted

PROTEINS needed for the REPAIR and GROWTH of body tissues

UNIT 1 - Information

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WATER

Water allows the body to maintain a CONSTANT temperature when undertaking physical activity

Water absorbs heat produced during physical activity which is then carried to the skin where it is lost in the air

Water as SWEAT helps to cool the body when it EVAPORATES on the surface of the skin

The more activity, the more water is lost

This can lead to 1) DEHYDRATION, 2) HEATSTROKE

Performance in physical activity is seriously affected by water loss

UNIT 1 - Information

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VITAMINS

Only small amounts needed

Vitamins regulate the chemical reactions of the body

They help with growth and repair of tissue

They help to resist infections

UNIT 1 - Information

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MINERALS

Minerals are found in a variety of foods

Calcium strengthens bones

Other minerals help with growth

UNIT 1 - Information

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FIBRE

Fibre keeps the digestive system working correctly

Fibre helps in food absorption

Fibre makes you feel full, so you eat less

UNIT 1 - Information

FUEL FOR EXERCISE:

The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance

Information/Discussion

Practical Application

GCSE Physical Education

SECTION B

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ENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Carbohydrates provide QUICK ENERGY. They supply energy for both AEROBIC and ANAEROBIC physical activity

Used for physical activity of a comparatively

SHORT length of time and HIGH INTENSITY

UNIT 1 - Information

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ENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Fats provide SLOW ENERGY

The provision is too slow to be used when used when working hard

Used for walking and low-impact exercise

Used for exercise of a longer duration, and MODERATE INTENSITY

Energy used will come from fats and carbohydrates in equal measures

Physical activity of LONG DURATION and HIGHER INTENSITY is fuelled more from fat stores in the body because the glycogen store becomes depleted

UNIT 1 - Information

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ENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

WATER – drink plenty of water BEFORE, DURING and AFTER your physical activity

PROTEIN – a little more may be needed for muscle growth and repair if training hard for long periods

CARBO LOADING – The aim of carbo-loading is to build up stores of carbohydrate so that energy can be produced for longer periods of time. This is achieved by eating up to 60% more carbohydrate and reducing physical activity on three days leading up to a competition

UNIT 1 - Information

slide20
EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS

The Food Standards Agency gives guidance on correct weight for height

However, being the correct weight does not necessarily mean being fit (amount of fat in the weight is crucial)

BODY COMPOSITION – “The proportion of fat in the body is compared to muscle and bone” – stated as a percentage

SKINFOLD TESTS are used to estimate body composition

Too much body fat puts a strain on the body – heart and muscle condition can badly affect performance

UNIT 1 - Information

slide21
EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS

To control body weight:

HEALTGHY BALANCED DIET + REGULAR EXERCISE

Energy balance all important

FOOD INTAKE = ENERGY OUTPUT

There is a direct link between HEALTH, FITNESS, and EXERCISE.

OVER WEIGHT – heavier than the Food Standards Agency guide. However, some of that extra weight might be muscle not fat.

OVER FAT – a high level of fat in comparison with their body composition – can lead to obesity related diseases and also cause poor sporting performances.

UNIT 1 - Information

slide22
EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS

OBESE – normally 20% over the Food Standards Agency guide of weight for height. Health risks – Heart disease, cancer, diabetes, osteoarthritis and other problems are likely if obese.

UNDER WEIGHT – ANOREXIA NERVOSA – where people do not eat as the see themselves as fat – leads to excessive weight loss.

BULIMIA – people eat a lot but the vomit – weight loss which needs addressing immediately.

Athletes quite often are concerned about their weight for the physical activity they take part in. This can lead to eating disorders.

UNIT 1 - Information

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EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS

BODY TYPE – BODY SHAPE – BODY COMPOSITION

Determine how effective you are at a physical activity

There are 3 SOMATO TYPES:

MESOMORPH ENDOMORPH ECTOMORPH

Each of the somato types can be changed by

DIET, EXERCISE and TRAINING

UNIT 1 - Information

slide24
EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS

UNIT 1 - Information

ECTOMORPH

Little fat

Little muscle

Narrow shoulders/hips

Very thin and lean

Long arms/legs

RELATIVE LINEARITY

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EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS

UNIT 1 - Information

Wedge-shaped body

MESOMORPH

Very little body fat

Wide shoulders/

Narrow hips

Heavily muscled arms/legs

RELATIVE MUSCULARITY

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EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS

UNIT 1 - Information

Wider front to back than side to side

Pear-shaped body

ENDOMORPH

Wide shoulders and hips

Lot of fat on body, arms and thighs

RELATIVE FATNESS

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EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS

UNIT 1 - Information

Sprinter

As Usain Bolt illustrates, the perfect sprinter is tall with a muscular (mesomorphic) body, slim lower legs and narrow hips. You also need a developed nervous system, which you can develop with short (e.g. 30m) sprints at maximum effort.

Middle Distance

In middle-distance events, you’re after a high-aerobic threshold (i.e. plenty of stamina) as well as high speed. In training, volume should drop, and intensity rise, as race season approaches – but keep in mind that sudden changes cause injury.

Long Distance

Like Paula Radcliffe, marathon runners tend to be ‘ectomorphs’, i.e. lean and lightweight with slim bodies and legs. Their calf muscles are also pretty skinny, too dense a muscle mass and the strain could lead to injuries like shin splints.

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EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS

Most people are somewhere in between these 3 extremes

People with different Body Shapes and Types tend to be good at different sports

The Body Type can give an individual of what work has to be carried out in terms of Fitness, Exercise and Training.

UNIT 1 - Information

slide29

Class Discussion

“What is a balanced diet”?

UNIT 1 – Practical Application

slide30

Class Discussion

“What is the importance of each of the components of a balanced diet”?

UNIT 1 – Practical Application

GCSE Physical Education

SECTION B

slide31

Class Discussion

Choose 3 physical activities and discuss their requirements in terms of nutrition.

UNIT 1 – Practical Application

1.

2.

3.

slide32
Body composition and Height/Weight testing

Somatotyping – photographs of different persons involved in physical activity

Ask class to work in groups and sort out photos/cuttings into 3 body types

Describe the characteristics.

Are there any which are difficult to categorise? Why?

Use Rugby as an activity and look at the demands/positions of the game.

“Why body types would be most suitable for each position and why”

UNIT 1 – Practical Application

slide33
• Health – Physical, Social, Mental

• Fitness

• Exercise

• Lifestyle

• Individual needs

UNIT 1 - Links

slide34
What are the 3 food groups and what percentage should they contribute to our diet?

Which components of our diet supply energy?

Why are carbohydrates referred to as the main energy supplier?

How are carbohydrates stored in the body?

Give 3 factors which affect water loss.

UNIT 1 - Activity

slide35
To balance the energy equation what must we do?

Give 3 ways of losing weight?

What happens to the carbohydrate and fat we take in but don’t use for energy?

What is the energy equation and what does it tell us?

UNIT 1 - Activity

slide36
Move the images below to match them with the appropriate body type.

UNIT 1 - Activity

ENDOMORPH

MESOMORPH

ECTOMORPH

GCSE Physical Education

slide37
Describe the main characteristics of each body type.

UNIT 1 - Activity

MESOMORPH

ECTOMORPH

ENDOMORPH

Activity

slide38
Define the terms ‘health’ and ‘fitness’.

Explain the relationship between health and fitness.

How might exercise affect your weight?

How can lifestyle affect the energy needs of a person?

Why is fluid intake an important consideration for a sportsperson?

Explain what is meant by diet.

UNIT 1 - Activity

slide39
Explain why some sportspeople ‘carbohydrate-load’ before endurance events, such as marathons.

Briefly describe the meaning of the term ‘energy balance’.

Why is knowledge of the ‘energy balance equation’ important for a sportsperson?

What nutrient in our diet supplies energy during intense exercise?

What term is used to describe the amount of energy needed to keep a person alive and healthy?

UNIT 1 - Activity

slide40
Name three factors which could affect water loss taking part in sporting activity.

Why is it generally undesirable for sportspersons to have a high percentage of body fat?

How can the level of body fat be controlled?

Explain why CARBOHYDRATE is the major energy fuel used during vigorous exercise.

UNIT 1 - Activity

slide41

UNIT 1 – Key Facts/Glossary

Balanced diet

Water, dehydration, heatstroke

Energy providers

Carbohydrate

Fats

Protein

Vitamins, minerals, fibre

High protein diet

PAL

Fitness

HEALTH - LIFESTYLE - PERFORMANCE

Exercise

BMR

Carbo-loading

Good foods

Energy balance

Over weight

Obesity

Over fat

Somatotyping

Anorexia

Bulimia