Introduction • Welcome! • Personal Introduction
How do go from the laboratory…..? • To full scale production…..?
Contents • What factors do we need to consider in design of a plant? • Types of industrial processes • What factors are important in running a plant?
Key design factors • What do we want to make? • In what quantities? (cost constraints / demand constraints, competition already in this market) • How will we manufacture? (Differences in processes) • Where do we locate the facility? • How can we ensure safe production? • What environmental /local or national legislation considerations are there? • What are the costs associated with start up? • What systems will be used to operate the facility (people and shifts)?
What and how much do we want to make? • Will this plant make only one product or many products? • Examples are sulphuric acid, sodium hydroxide, dyestuffs, perfumes • How much will we make? • 10g, 10kgs or 10,000T The answers to these questions will determine how we will manufacture
Key Business Decision • How are we going to make the product? - We need ‘Know-how’ - We need a production ‘blueprint’ - We need to decide on the equipment that is is needed - We need a strategy – decide on our method of making the product
Examples of Processes • Single unit production process – Single Job production e.g. manufacture of a hand-made detailed /complex piece of furniture • Mass production – using machines and people to repeat simple production tasks to quickly build many of the same products e.g.Cars
Manufacturing processes • Batch process - A process that is not in continuous or mass production; operations are carried out with discrete quantities of material or a limited number of items (1T of X and 2T of Y) • Continuous process -Industrial process that continuously receives raw materials and processes them through to completed units (1T/h of X and 2T/h of Y)
Examples of batch processes • Pharmacuticals (substances with medicinal properties) • Agrochemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, fungicides) • Dyestuffs (food dyes, clothing dyes, industrial dyes) • Food additives(preservatives, enhancers, the ‘E’s in food) • Perfumes • Vitamins • Pigments
Advantages of batch processes • Good for small amounts of speciality chemicals • Make a range of products using same equipment • Can schedule maintenance & inspections to equipment in between batches • Good for developing new products • Easier to scale up from lab scale • Generally cheaper set up costs • Employees understand the process well
Disadvantages of batch processing • Frequent start up and shutdown of equipment – DOWNTIME!! • Cleaning time between batches • May be batch to batch variability • Not good for bulk chemical production
Examples of Continuous Processes • Sulphuric acid production • Sodium hydroxide production • Ammonia • Petrol • Chlorine • Methanol
Advantages of Continuous Processing • Good for large volumes (bulk chemicals) • Fewer start up and shutdowns – UPTIME!! • Potentially greater yields • Potentially easier to maintain quality or spot out of specification product sooner
Disadvantages of Continuous Processing • Requires periodic shutdown of whole plant for inspection and maintenance • May rely on critical pieces of equipment which have the potential to stop production on whole plant • Higher initial costs • Employees knowledge of the process is limited Short Discussion : Synthetic Rubber Production
Designing in Safety • Sets of legal and business standards to which plants must comply • Process Safety Management • What if? • Risk assessment Key at the design stage is to review proposed design, identify hazards and engineer them out. If the hazard cannot be eliminated then the risk must be reduced using various means.
Examples of Safety Devices – hierarchy of control • Relief Valves • Rupture discs • Conservation vents • Failsafe logic • Process Interlocks • Alarms, monitoring of process conditions • Physical barriers • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Training of personnel
Key Environmental Considerations • International/national laws • Governmental conditions (licence to operate) • Again key is to eliminate or minimise at design stage. • If can’t eliminate then must look at containment and treatment.
What will this Cost? • Fixed Capital investment – Total cost of the plant ready for start up. • Working Capital investment – additional investment required over and above fixed capital to start the plant up and operate it to a point where income is generated.
Types of Costs • Fixed Capital Investment • Concrete and steel • Equipment • Piping • Instrumentation • Buildings for process and other eg offices • Storage facilities • Utilities provision • Design and engineering costs • Contractors fees • Working Capital Investment • Start up • Initial catalyst charges • Raw materials • Finished Product Inventories • Non Capital Investment • People involved in start up • Travel • Training
How will we run the plant? • Will it be 24/7 operation? • How many people? • What skills do they require (operating technicians, maintenance technicians, engineers)? • What support staff (HR, admin,finance, IT)?
An Oil Refinery Photo courtesy Phillips Petroleum Company http://science.howstuffworks.com/oil-refining.htm/printable
Fractional distillation of Crude Oil Can be processed further to make other products
Chlor-Alkali HCl Product Hydrogen Handling HCl Production HCl Storage Sulphuric Acid Carbon Dioxide NaOH Chlorine Product Chlorine Storage Chlorine Packing, Filling Vaporization Chlorine Drying Chlorine Compression Chlorine Liquefaction Salt Secondary Treatment Brine Saturation Primary Treatment Demin. Water Sulphuric Acid Hypo Product Hypo Storage Hypo Production Sodium Sulphite To Hypo Caustic Product Sulphate Removal Electrolysis Caustic Concentration Caustic Storage HCl NaOH Chlorate Destruction Brine Dechlorination Demineralized Water HCl AC Power Supply DC Rectification Hypo Destruction CHEMETICS http://www.akerkvaerner.com/NR/rdonlyres/A078B10E-6369-48E5-9E2D-ECD2BFE2E628/12091/ProcessFigure1.PPT
Agrochemical Production • Bulk chemicals production –how do you think you would manufacture? • Fertilisers – what hazards exist in design and production?
Aim of Production To make first time, first quality product, safely, with maximum yield
The Haber Process N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g) ΔHo = -92.4 kJ/mol • Reversible Reaction • Exothermic reaction – best yield obtained at lower temperatures but rate of reaction is too slow so increased temperature is used. • Catalyst is used to help speed up the reaction rate • Increased pressure increases yield What do you think are the key variables to control during production?
Recent Incident Explosion at Terra Nitrogen (UK) Ltd, Billingham 01.06.2006 Terra Nitrogen is the UK's largest manufacturer of nitrogen products used extensively in the chemical industry and agriculture and employs around 250 people on Teesside. The incident happened on a pipe at the plant and led to a fire involving mixed gases including hydrogen, nitrogen and a small amount of ammonia which was extinguished automatically as the pipe depressurised. The exact cause of the blast is not yet clear. The HSE are currently investigating with the Environment Agency (EA).
Recent Incident Buncefield Oil Storage Depot Explosion, Hemel Hempstead – 11.12.2005 In the early hours of Sunday 11th December 2005, a number of explosions occurred at Buncefield Oil Storage Depot. At least one of the initial explosions was of massive proportions and there was a large fire, which engulfed a high proportion of the site. Over 40 people were injured; fortunately there were no fatalities. Significant damage occurred to both commercial and residential properties in the vicinity and a large area around the site was evacuated on emergency service advice. The fire burned for several days, destroying most of the site and emitting large clouds of black smoke into the atmosphere. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) are leading a joint investigation with the Environment Agency (EA). BBC News UK 09/05/2006 • A storage tank at the Buncefield oil depot was overflowing for more than 40 minutes before it exploded, causing a 32-hour inferno, a report has said. • Fuel was piped into the tank for 11 hours before the blasts on 11 December 2005. • The HSE said that at 0520 GMT the tank was full, but gauges and safety devices did not work and 41 minutes later the tank exploded. How Tank Overflowed:Under normal circumstances, gauges monitor the level of the fuel in the tank as it fills from a pipeline. An automatic high level safety switch should trigger an alarm if the tank reaches its maximum capacity. This should result in shutdown. But on this occasion, automatic shutdown did not happen and when fuel continued to be pumped in, it overflowed through roof vents. http://www.buncefieldinvestigation.gov.uk/index.htm
Recent Incident ….Texas City BP http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCcN4SQkb9A
Key monitoring conditions • Pressures • Temperatures • Flows • pH • Concentrations • Mixing rates • Alertness to unusual conditions
Running Costs • Variable Costs – Costs related to production • Raw materials • Utilities • Packaging • Storage and distribution • Fixed costs – Costs which are paid regardless of production rate • Labour costs • Maintenance costs • Admin costs (insurances, rates, taxes)