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Close Reading. Julie Kozisek, Ph.D. Professor of Education Doane College Crete, NE Julie.kozisek@doane.edu Michelle Rezek , M.A. Elementary Principal Waverly Public Schools Waverly, NE michelle.rezek@ dist145schools.org. The Blob Tree. Which one are you ???.

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close reading
Close Reading

Julie Kozisek, Ph.D.

Professor of Education

Doane College

Crete, NE

Julie.kozisek@doane.edu

Michelle Rezek, M.A.

Elementary Principal

Waverly Public Schools

Waverly, NE

michelle.rezek@dist145schools.org

the blob tree
The Blob Tree

Which one are

you???

common core state standards
Common Core State Standards
  • English Language Arts Standards
    • Information and Literary Strands
    • Science and History
    • 10 Anchor Standards
      • Categories
        • Key Ideas and Details
        • Craft and Structure
        • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
        • Text Complexity
standard i informational text
Standard I – Informational text
  • K – With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text
  • 1 – Ask and answer questions about key details in a text
  • 2 – Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text
  • 3 – Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers
  • 4 – Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text
  • 5 – Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inference from the text
what is close reading
What is Close Reading?

An instructional routine in which students critically examine a text through rereading.

slide7

“Close reading of a text involves an investigation of a short piece of text, with multiple reading done over multiple instructional lessons. Through text based questions and discussion, students are guided to deeply analyze and appreciate various aspects of the text, such as key vocabulary and how its meaning is shaped by context; attention to form, tone, imagery and/or rhetorical devices; the significance of word choice and syntax; and the discovery of different levels of meaning as passages are read multiple times.”

A Primer on “Close Reading of Text” by Sheila Brown and Lee Kappes

short passages
Short Passages
  • Short stories, articles, excerpts of text (paragraph, page or small section)
  • Narrative or Informational
  • Hard above independent level
  • Complex
      • Vocabulary
      • Syntax
      • Structure
      • Text feature
limited frontloading
Limited Frontloading
  • Students need to do the “heavy lifting”
  • Let the author do the talking
  • Set the purpose for reading
  • Value the struggle

The goal of close reading is for students themselves to figure out what is confusing and to identify resources that they can use to address their confusion.

  • Back-end scaffolding is defined as what teachers do after students read complex text to deepen understanding of the text and is dependent on the particular group of students and their needs.
rereading deliberatively
Rereading Deliberatively
  • Slows down the reading process
  • Helps the reader to notice details
  • Teaches problem solving
  • Different Purposes – revisit

the text with a different lens

      • Key Ideas
      • Craft and Structure
      • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
noticing things that are confusing
Noticing Things That Are Confusing
  • Students need to become proficient in noticing what is causing the confusion.
  • Students mark confusing parts.
  • Teacher uses this information to make decisions about what to turn into a think aloud as students return to the text.
reading with a pencil
Reading with a Pencil
  • Keeps the reader active
  • Helps the student remember their thoughts
  • Writing on the text
  • Needs to be explicitly taught
  • Annotations/Think Marks/Coding
  • Use annotations to formulate arguments, analyze information and make connections
slide14

Modeled Annotation in Second

Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies That Work: Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

discussing text
Discussing Text
  • Students engage in purposeful talk, using academicvocabulary and citing evidence from the text.
  • Students need time to practice and scaffolding to be good at this.
          • Think Pair Share
          • Jigsaw
          • Small groups, then share

with the class

responding to text dependent questions
Responding to Text Dependent Questions
  • Hierarchy of questions that force the reader back into the text.
      • Question Answer Relationship (QAR)
      • Fountas and Pinnell (Within, Beyond, About Questions)

Questions cannot be answered without using the text. Students need to dig deeply into the text to answer them.

Teach students to “touch the text” – physically touch the portion of the text that proves their answer.

variety of texts
Variety of Texts
  • Folktales, legends, myths, fables
  • Short stories
  • Poetry
  • Scenes from plays
  • Short articles
  • Biographies
  • Personal narratives
  • Easier primary sources materials
  • Picture books
slide19

Close reading can be done with the entire class in a large group setting or it can be done with a small group such as guided reading.

planning a close r eading preplanning
Planning a Close Reading - Preplanning

Begin with the end in mind:

What do you want the students

to know and do as a result

of the lesson?

planning a close r eading preplanning1
Planning a Close Reading - Preplanning
  • Choose text
      • It should be short, complex and worthy of a close read.
  • Determine the complex ideas in the text that require close reading
      • Language – word choice, vocabulary, reading complexity
      • Craft and structure – text structure
      • Context – author’s background
      • Syntax – order of words, repeated phrases
  • Generate text-dependent questions
      • Questions should require the students to revisit the text and use the author’s words.
      • Students should also use text evidence to answer the question(s).
slide22

Close Reading involves multiple days:

  • Building Background – this changes as students learn to build background knowledge on their own
  • Step 1 – Read for the gist – key ideas and details
  • Step 2 – Look at craft and structure
  • Step 3 – Integrate knowledge and ideas
short text
Short Text

Excerpt from Henry’s Freedom BoxBy Ellen Levine

~pg. 1-14

building prior knowledge
Building Prior Knowledge

Teach an instructional routine:

  • Read the title. “What do you know about this topic?”
    • Nothing=slow, thoughtful reading and rereading
    • Something=Compare what you read with what you know
  • Read the first paragraph
  • Skip to and read the last paragraph
  • Think to yourself about everything you learned. (Tell a partner)
  • Jot down in your own words what you learned…this is your prior knowledge.
  • Set a purpose for reading. Think about questions you have. Create one question or statement to describe your purpose.
slide25

Building Prior Knowledge

Once students are familiar with the instructional routine you will phase this out and they will do it on their own.

step 1
Step 1

Read to get the gist…

    • Provide a purpose
    • Read to find out about Henry

Go back

  • Underline the key points in the text.
  • Circle the confusing parts or words.
  • Turn and talk with your table group about what you underlined and circled.
  • Come to a consensus with the group about what were the key points. Record them on the paper.
  • Can be done as a read aloud, partner reading, or independent reading.
slide27

Step 1 – First Read

  • Key Ideas and Details
  • Select a text that is close-read worthy.
  • Read aloud (partner read or independent read) and ask students a question about the big ideas in the text:
  • What is the text mostly about?
  • Summarize the text.
  • What message is the author sharing?
key ideas and details
Key Ideas and Details
  • What are the key ideas in this text?
  • What key details and/or examples support the main idea of ______?
  • Who, what, where, when and how questions
  • What message was the author trying to share?
  • What is the main idea of this text?
  • What are the 2 or more main ideas in this text?
  • What key supporting details did the author cite?
  • Explain connections between ______ and _____ (ideas/details)
  • What conclusions can you draw from the text? Note text evidence to support your conclusion.
  • What have you learned from the text?
  • What message was the author trying to share?
  • Explain key details that support the author’s message.

Beth Burke – “A Close Look at Close Reading”

step 2
Step 2
  • This read is a look at craft and structure.
  • Select a portion of the text to draw attention to.
  • Use a text dependent question to create a focus for Close Reading.
    • Look at Pg 2
    • Listen to me read this page
    • How is this last line significant to the meaning of the text?
slide30

Step 2 – Second Read

  • Craft and Structure
  • Select a portion or chunk of the text that includes ideas that require digging deeper.
  • Select a text-dependent question that looks at how the author presents information
  • Explain what (vocabulary word) means.
  • How does the author feel about the topic?
  • What is the text structure of this text?
craft and structure
Craft and Structure
  • What does ____________ mean?
        • Vocabulary word
        • Phrase
        • Figurative language
  • How do the (sections, paragraphs, chapters, stanzas) fit together to provide overall structure?
  • How did the author organize the ideas in the text?
  • Explain how you know that the author used a _______ text structure.
  • What text features did the author include to help the reader?
  • How does the author feel about the topic?
  • How does your own point of view compare to the author of ____?
  • How did the graphics help you understand _____________?

Beth Burke – “A Close Look at Close Reading”

step 3
Step 3
  • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    • Text Dependent Question(s)
    • Explain/Argue
    • Students “do” something with their learning
        • Written, visually, orally
        • Textual evidence given
        • How did the author and the illustrator work together to help you understand what Henry’s life was like as a slave? Use evidence from the text.
slide33

Step 3 – Third Read

  • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
  • Require the students to synthesize or analyze information from several sections of the text or multiple texts.
  • What text features did the author include? How did they help the reader?
  • How did the pictures help the reader understand the story?
  • How did the visual elements contribute to the text?
integration of knowledge and ideas
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
  • What was the tone of this text?
  • What does the text mean?
  • What is the text’s value?
  • How does the text connect with other text we have read?
  • Explain connections between specific sentences and paragraphs.
  • Identify the reasons the author gives to support his key points.
  • Explain how the author uses reasons and evidence to support the main idea of _________.
  • Compare and contrast this text with ____________. Identify similarities and differences.
  • Compare the text to: a movie, webpage, piece of art, music, video game, etc.
  • What text features did the author include to help the reader?

Beth Burke – “A Close Look at Close Reading”

teach students to ask t hemselves q uestions
Teach Students to Ask Themselves Questions
  • Key ideas and details
      • What is the author telling me here?
  • Craft and Structure
      • Are there any hard or important words?
      • Are there structures that I need to pay attention to?
      • How does the author play with language to add meaning?
  • Integration of knowledge and ideas
      • What does the author want me to understand?
      • What inferences can I make?
you try it
You try it!!!
  • Let’s look at the lesson plan template.
  • Choose a piece of text from the table.
  • Read the piece a few times.
  • Analyze for text factors (see list of ideas on lesson plan)
  • Determine text structure (see slides at end)
  • Think about text dependent questions
understanding the features of a text
Understanding the Features of a Text
  • Teach the students the different text structures
      • Description
      • Sequence/time order
      • Compare-contrast
      • Cause-effect
      • Problem-solution
  • Teach students about the use of multiple structures in a piece of text
  • “This is what I know about how informational text are structured . .”
  • “This is what I know about how to use that knowledge to tackle new informational texts . . .”
key ideas and details1
Key Ideas and Details
  • What are the key ideas in this text?
  • What key details and/or examples support the main idea of ______?
  • Who, what, where, when and how questions
  • What message was the author trying to share?
  • What is the main idea of this text?
  • What are the 2 or more main ideas in this text?
  • What key supporting details did the author cite?
  • Explain connections between ______ and _____ (ideas/details)
  • What conclusions can you draw from the text? Note text evidence to support your conclusion.
  • What have you learned from the text?
  • What message was the author trying to share?
  • Explain key details that support the author’s message.

Beth Burke – “A Close Look at Close Reading”

craft and structure1
Craft and Structure
  • What does ____________ mean?
        • Vocabulary word
        • Phrase
        • Figurative language
  • How do the (sections, paragraphs, chapters, stanzas) fit together to provide overall structure?
  • How did the author organize the ideas in the text?
  • Explain how you know that the author used a _______ text structure.
  • What text features did the author include to help the reader?
  • How does the author feel about the topic?
  • How does your own point of view compare to the author of ____?
  • How did the graphics help you understand _____________?

Beth Burke – “A Close Look at Close Reading”

integration of knowledge and ideas1
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
  • What was the tone of this text?
  • What does the text mean?
  • What is the text’s value?
  • How does the text connect with other text we have read?
  • Explain connections between specific sentences and paragraphs.
  • Identify the reasons the author gives to support his key points.
  • Explain how the author uses reasons and evidence to support the main idea of _________.
  • Compare and contrast this text with ____________. Identify similarities and differences.
  • Compare the text to: a movie, webpage, piece of art, music, video game, etc.
  • What text features did the author include to help the reader?

Beth Burke – “A Close Look at Close Reading”

reflecting and planning
Reflecting and Planning

Think about today and what your next steps are. Tell the person next to you three things you are going to to experiment with or focus on for the upcoming weeks and for possible implementation in the fall.

web resources
Web Resources
  • www.studentnewsnet.com- short pieces of text
  • www.achievethecore.org - short pieces of text
  • www.sciencenewsforkids.org - short pieces of text
  • kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids
  • ngexplorer.cengage.com
  • juliekozisek.wikispaces.com- resources
  • http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=7010
  • http://www.isbe.state.il.us/common_core/pls/level2/html/close-reading.htm
  • http://www.pinterest.com/teacherchels44/common-core-close-reading/
  • http://www.pinterest.com/oneteacherstake/text-complexity-close-reading/
  • http://www.kbumreading.com/reading-writing.html
resources
Resources
  • Falling in Love with Close Reading – Christopher Lehman and Kate Roberts
  • Unlocking Complex Text – Laura Robb
  • Rigorous Reading – Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher
  • The Primary Comprehension Toolkit, The Comprehension Toolkit and Toolkit Texts - Harvey and Goudvis
  • Text and Lessons for Content Area Reading – Harvey Daniels
  • Comprehension Instruction Through Text-based Discussion – Linda Kucan and Annemarie Palinesar
  • Genre Study, Fountas and Pinnell
  • Connecting Comprehension and Technology: Adapt and Extend Toolkit Practices – Harvey and Goudvis
  • Text Complicity: Raising Rigor in Reading – Fisher, Frey and Lapp
  • Teaching Students to Read Like Detectives: Comprehending, Analyzing and Discussing Text - Fisher, Frey and Lapp
resources1
Resources
  • Text Complicity: Raising Rigor in Reading – Fisher, Frey and Lapp
  • Teaching Students to Read Like Detectives: Comprehending, Analyzing and Discussing Text - Fisher, Frey and Lapp
  • Close Reading of informational Texts – Sunday Cummins
  • http://www.sunday-cummins.com