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Update on Project No Drip. Jacqueline Greene Michelle Dufalla Tania Chan February 22, 2007. Initial Design Schematic. H2O container. cork. Clamp with attached rubber plug. Inside container. Container wall. Tap Design Considerations.

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update on project no drip
Update on Project No Drip

Jacqueline Greene

Michelle Dufalla

Tania Chan

February 22, 2007

initial design schematic
Initial Design Schematic

H2O container

cork

Clamp with attached rubber plug

Inside

container

Container

wall

tap design considerations
Tap Design Considerations
  • Gravity driven tap- need to ensure water-tight seal, grit resistant, easily produced, easy to distribute water
  • 2-hole Jerry Can- one removable for water refill, one permanent for water access
  • Can be assembled with cheap, bought materials (PVC tubing, cork, etc.) or by processing recycled plastics (we plan to try and test out both options)
slide4

Jerrycans in Kenya

  • For use at grade schools in Kenya
  • Durable, can endure many cycles, up to 1,000,000 a year
  • Suitable for different types of jerrycans
slide5

Designs Considered

Pumping System

  • Pros:
  • Basic pumping system
  • Does not require water proof sealing
  • Cons:
  • High cost
  • Impurities in water may lead to clogging
  • Durability?
slide6

Designs Considered

Gravity Driven System

  • Pros:
  • Water flows from gravity
  • Simple design
  • Durable
  • Cons:
  • Low water pressure when water is running low
  • Needs sealing around tap
slide7

Designs Considered

Water Swelling Grommets

  • Pros:
  • Grommet made of water swelling polymers
  • Swelling acts as sealing even when grommet is not a perfect fit
  • Cons:
  • Polymers lose mechanical properties after swelling
  • Structurally strong swellign polymers are expensive
materials costs pvc pipe
Materials Costs – PVC Pipe

½” - $0.52/foot

¼” - $0.76/foot

http://www.usplastic.com/catalog/product.asp?catalog%5Fname=USPlastic&category%5Fname=13669&product%5Fid=16587&gclid=COzC4PfhwIoCFQx1VAoduiiekw&cookie%5Ftest=1

materials costs clamps
Materials Costs – Clamps

$1.10

-or-

* 6 Gauge Brass Wire ~ $1 /foot

http://www.schoolmasters.com/science4.html

http://www.rjleahy.com/Store/wire/bwi.htm

materials costs cork
Materials Costs – Cork

Self-Expanding - $78.26/ 1”x36”x24”

http://www.corkstore.com

materials costs bulk rubber
Materials Costs – Bulk Rubber

Pure Gum - $57.64/ 1”x36”x12”

Closed Cell Neoprene Blend- $183.90/ 1”x70”x 42”

http://www.rubbercal.com

major materials costs approximations
Major Materials Costs – Approximations

PVC Pipe – 2 inches of ½” diameter ~ $0.09

-or- 2 inches of ¼” diameter ~$0.13

Closed Cell Neoprene Blend – 4 sq. in. ~ $0.25

-or- Pure Gum Rubber – 4 sq. in. ~ $0.54

-or- Expanding Cork – 4 sq. in. ~ $0.37

Clamp - 1 - $1.10

TOTAL ~ $1.44-1.77

advantages of recycling plastics in developing countries
Advantages of Recycling Plastics in Developing Countries
  • Lower labour costs
  • existing culture of reuse and recycling, & collection of these materials
  • Possibilities to create small businesses, opportunities to earn a small income are rarely missed by members of the urban poor.
  • Fewer laws to control the standards of recycled materials. (i.e. in the US recycled plastics can not be used to package food- must be virgin plastic)
  • Lower transportation costs, hand or ox carts often being used.
  • Innovative use of scrap machinery often leads to low entry costs for processing or manufacture.

http://practicalaction.org/practicalanswers/product_info.php?products_id=190

disadvantages of recycling
Disadvantages of Recycling
  • Cost: “May not be economical to recycle small quantities of plastics.
  • Training of waste generators will be required, so they can separate the wastes properly.
  • Market prices for recycled plastic are currently $200 to $1000/ton from local recycling centers based on recent surveys in selected regions. As presented below, a recycling program, dedicated only to plastic container recycling, is not likely to be cost effective unless large quantities of plastic containers are collected and sold. This is primarily a function of the market price for plastic. It will however be cost effective if incorporated into an existing program that includes glass and aluminum recycling.

Joint Service Pollution Prevention Opportunity handbook, US Navy

http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/7_I_A_7.html

recycling vs disposal costs
Recycling vs. Disposal costs
  • According to the Institute for Lifecycle Environmental Assessment (http://www.ilea.org/lcas/Tellus.html),

“Though there is no decisive research on the environmental impacts of recycling plastic, relating the economic cost of disposal to recycling shows that the cost to recycle plastic is $360 per ton while normal disposal cost is $250 per ton. “

how plastics are recycled
How Plastics are Recycled

http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/saving/recycling/solidwaste/plastics.html

1. Inspection Workers inspect the plastic trash for contaminants like rock and glass, and for plastics that the plant cannot recycle. 

2. Chopping and Washing The plastic is washed and chopped into flakes.

3. Flotation Tank If mixed plastics are being recycled, they are sorted in a flotation tank, where some types of plastic sink and others float.

4. Drying The plastic flakes are dried in a tumble dryer.

how plastics are recycled cont d
How Plastics are Recycled cont’d

5. Melting The dried flakes are fed into an extruder, where heat and pressure melt the plastic. Different types of plastics melt at different temperatures.

6. Filtering The molten plastic is forced through a fine screen to remove any contaminants that slipped through the washing process. The molten plastic is then formed into strands.

7. Pelletizing The strands are cooled in water, then chopped into uniform pellets. Manufacturing companies buy the plastic pellets from recyclers to make new products. Recycled plastics also can be made into flowerpots, lumber, and carpeting.  

http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/saving/recycling/solidwaste/plastics.html

manufacturing techniques for recycled plastics
Manufacturing Techniques for Recycled Plastics
  • Extrusion: the product is usually in the form of a continuous 'tube' of plastic such as piping or hose. The reclaimed plastic is forced along the heated tube by an archimedes screw and the plastic polymer is shaped around a die. The die is designed to give the required dimensions to the product and can be interchanged.
  • Injection moulding. The first stage of this manufacturing process is identical to that of extrusion, but then the plastic polymer emerges through a nozzle into a split mould. The quantity of polymer being forced out is carefully controlled, usually by moving the screw forward in the heated barrel. A series of moulds would be used to allow continual production while cooling takes place. This type of production technique is used to produce moulded products such as plates, bowls, buckets, etc.
  • Blow moulding. Again the spiral screw forces the plasticised polymer through a die. A short piece of tube, or 'parison' is then enclosed between a split die - which is the final shape of the product - and compressed air is used to expand the parison until it fills the mould and achieves its required shape. This manufacturing technique is used for manufacturing closed vessels such as bottles and other containers.
  • Film blowing. Film blowing is a process used to manufacture such items as garbage bags. It is a technically more complex process than the others described in this brief and requires high quality raw material input. The process involves blowing compressed air into a thin tube of polymer to expand it to the point where it becomes a thin film tube. One end can then be sealed and the bag or sack is formed. Sheet plastic can also be manufactured using a variation of the process described.