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Lean & Agile Project Management. for Large Programs & Projects Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSM Twitter : @ dr_david_f_rico Website: http://www.davidfrico.com LinkedIn : http://www.linkedin.com/in/davidfrico Facebook : http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1540017424. Author Background.

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slide1

Lean & AgileProject Management

for Large Programs & Projects

Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSM

Twitter: @dr_david_f_rico

Website: http://www.davidfrico.com

LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/davidfrico

Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1540017424

slide2

Author Background

  • DoD contractor with 28+ years of IT experience
  • B.S. Comp. Sci., M.S. Soft. Eng., & D.M. Info. Sys.
  • Large gov’t projects in U.S., Far/Mid-East, & Europe
  • Published six books & numerous journal articles
  • Adjunct at George Washington, UMUC, & Argosy
  • Agile Program Management & Lean Development
  • Specializes in metrics, models, & cost engineering
  • Six Sigma, CMMI, ISO 9001, DoDAF, & DoD 5000
  • Cloud Computing, SOA, Web Services, FOSS, etc.
slide3

Agenda

Intro to Agile Project Mgt.

Types of Agile Project Mgt.

Phases of Agile Project Mgt.

Scaling of Agile Project Mgt.

EVM for Agile Project Mgt.

Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

slide4

Today’s Whirlwind Environment

Global

Competition

Work Life

Imbalance

Demanding

Customers

·

Overruns

Vague

·

Attrition

Requirements

·

Escalation

·

Runaways

·

Cancellation

Organization

Downsizing

Technology

Change

System

Complexity

slide5

What is Agility?

  • A-gil-i-ty (ə-'ji-lə-tē) Property consisting of quickness, lightness, and ease of movement; To be very nimble
    • The ability to create and respond to changein order to profit in a turbulent global business environment
    • The ability to quickly reprioritizeuse of resources when requirements, technology, and knowledge shift
    • A very fast responseto sudden market changes and emerging threats by intensive customer interaction
    • Use of evolutionary, incremental, and iterative delivery to converge on an optimal customer solution
    • Maximizing the Business Value with right sized, just-enough, and just-in-time processes and documentation

F

E

Highsmith, J. A. (2002). Agile software development ecosystems. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.

5

slide6

Values of Agile Project Mgt.

  • People-centric way to create innovative solutions
  • Market-centric model to maximize business value
  • Alternativeto large document-based methodologies

Agile Methods

Agile Methods

Traditional Methods

‘Values’

‘Principles’

‘Values’

Customer

Interaction

Customer

Collaboration

Contract

Negotiation

valued

more than

also

known as

High Performance

Teams

Individuals &

Interactions

Processes

& Tools

also

known as

valued

more than

Iterative

Development

Working

Systems

Comprehensive

Documentation

also

known as

valued

more than

Adaptability

or Flexibility

Responding

to Change

Following

a Plan

also

known as

valued

more than

Agile Manifesto. (2001). Manifesto for agile software development. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from http://www.agilemanifesto.org

slide7

When to use Agile Proj. Mgt.

  • On exploratory or research/development projects
  • When fast customer responsiveness is paramount
  • In organizations that are highly innovative & creative

Traditional Project Management

Agile Project Management

·

·

Predictable situations

High levels of uncertainty and unpredictability

·

·

Low technology projects

High technology projects

·

·

Stable, slow moving industries

Fast paced, highly competitive industries

·

·

Low levels of technological change

Rapid pace of technological change

·

·

Repeatable operations

Research oriented, discovery projects

·

·

Low rates of changing project performance

Large fluctuations in project performance

·

·

Long term, fixed price production contracts

Shorter term, performance based RDT&E contracts

·

·

Achieving concise economic efficiency goals

Achieving high impact product/service effectiveness

·

·

Highly administrative contracts

Highly creative new product development contracts

·

·

Mass production and high volume manufacturing

Customer intensive, one off product/service solutions

·

·

Highly predictable and stable market conditions

Highly volatile and unstable market conditions

·

·

Low margin industries such as commodities

High margin, intellectually intensive industries

·

·

Delivering value at the point of plan

Delivering value at the point of sale

Pine, B. J. (1993). Mass customization: The new frontier in business competition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

7

slide8

Agile World View

  • “Agility” has many dimensions other than IT
  • It ranges from leadership to technological agility
  • The focus of this brief is program managementagility

Agile Leaders

Agile Organization Change

Agile Acquisition & Contracting

Agile Strategic Planning

F

E

Agile Capability Analysis

Agile Program Management

Agile Project Management

Agile Systems Development

Agile Processes & Practices

Agile Tools

Agile Information Systems

Agile Tech.

slide9

Agenda

Intro to Agile Project Mgt.

Types of Agile Project Mgt.

Phases of Agile Project Mgt.

Scaling of Agile Project Mgt.

EVM for Agile Project Mgt.

Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

slide10

Scrum Project Management

  • Created by Jeff Sutherland at Easel in 1993
  • Product backlog comprised of customer needs
  • Barely-sufficient project management framework

Initial Planning

Sprint Cycle

Discovery Session

Sprint

·

·

Select Tasks and Create Tests

Agile Training

·

Create Simple Designs

·

Project Discovery

·

Code and Test Software Units

·

Process Discovery

·

Perform Integration Testing

·

Team Discovery

·

Maintain Daily Burndown Chart

·

Initial Backlog

·

Update Sprint Backlog

Release Planning

Sprint Planning

Daily Scrum

Sprint Review

·

·

·

·

Set Sprint Capacity

Completed Backlog Items

Present Backlog Items

Business Case

·

·

·

Identify Tasks

Planned Backlog Items

Record Feedback

·

Desired Backlog

·

·

·

Estimate Tasks

Impediments to Progress

Adjust Backlog

·

Hi

-

Level Estimates

·

Prioritize Backlog

·

Finalize Backlog

Sprint Retrospective

Product Backlog

Sprint Backlog

Potentially Shippable Product

·

·

·

Prioritized Requirements

List of Technical Tasks Assigned to a Sprint

Working Operational Software

Schwaber, K. (2004). Agile project management with scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.

slide11

XP Project Management

  • Created by Kent Beck at Chrysler in 1998
  • Release plan is comprised of customer needs
  • Lightweight, rigorous near-term planning element

Release Planning

Iteration Planning

Exploration Phase

Exploration Phase

·

·

·

·

Build a Team

Split User Stories

Analyze Release Plan

Read User Stories

·

·

·

·

Write User Stories

Spike User Stories

Identify Iteration Goal

Develop Tasks

·

·

·

·

Estimate User Stories

Write User Tests

Select User Stories

Split Tasks

Commitment Phase

Commitment Phase

·

·

·

·

Sort by Value

Choose a Scope

Accept Tasks

Analyze Schedules

·

·

·

·

Sort by Risk

Set Iteration Length

Set Individual Velocity

Set Load Factors

·

·

·

·

Set Velocity

Develop Release Plan

Estimate Tasks

Balance Tasks

Steering Phase

Steering Phase

·

·

·

·

Select Iteration

New Release Plan

Select Partner

Unit/Integration Test

·

·

·

·

Adjust Velocity

Select Tools

Write Unit Tests

User Acceptance Test

·

·

·

·

Record Progress

Insert New Stories

Adjust Teams

Design and Code

Beck, K., & Fowler, M. (2001). Planning extreme programming. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.

slide12

Agile Project Management

  • Created by Jim Highsmith at Cutter in 2003
  • Focus on strategic plans and capability analysis
  • Most holistic agile project management framework

Innovation Lifecycle

Envision

Speculate

Explore

Launch

Close

·

·

·

·

·

Product Vision

Gather Requirements

Iteration Management

Final Review

Clean Up Open Items

·

·

·

·

·

Product Architecture

Product Backlog

Technical Practices

Final Acceptance

Support Material

·

·

·

·

·

Project Objectives

Release Planning

Team Development

Final QA

Final Retrospective

·

·

·

·

·

Project Community

Risk Planning

Team Decisions

Final Documentation

Final Reports

·

·

·

·

·

Delivery Approach

Cost Estimation

Collaboration

Final Deployment

Project Celebration

Iterative Delivery

Technical Planning

Development, Test, & Evaluation

Operational Testing

Adapt

·

·

·

·

Story Analysis

Development Pairing

Integration Testing

Focus Groups

·

·

·

·

Task Development

Unit Test Development

System Testing

Technical Reviews

·

·

·

·

Task Estimation

Simple Designs

Operational Testing

Team Evaluations

·

·

·

·

Task Splitting

Coding and Refactoring

Usability Testing

Project Reporting

·

·

·

·

Task Planning

Unit and Component Testing

Acceptance Testing

Adaptive Action

Continuous

Story Deployment

·

Standups, Architecture, Design, Build, Integration, Documentation, Change, Migration, and Integration

Highsmith, J. A. (2004). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide13

Flexible Project Management

  • Created by Doug DeCarlo at Cutter in 2004
  • Focus is on collaboration, scoping, and speed
  • Thinner traditional project management approach

Visionate

Speculate

Innovate

Re-Evaluate

Disseminate

Sponsor’s Vision

Planning Meeting

Learning by Doing

Business Questions

Product Launch

·

·

·

·

·

Interview Sponsor

Collective Vision

SCORE Model

Who Needs It?

Acceptance Testing

·

·

·

·

·

Describe Objectives

Size Deliverables

Architecture

What Will It Take?

Documentation

·

·

·

·

·

Project Prospectus

Map Schedule

Development

Can We Get It?

Support Plan

·

·

·

·

·

Business Questions

Choose Life Cycle

Construction

Is It Worth It?

Maintenance Plan

·

·

·

Requirements ID’d

Testing

Deploy Solution

·

·

·

Development Tools

Time Boxing

Customer Service

Collective Vision

Project Review

·

·

Risk Planning

Trial and Error

·

·

Scope Meeting

Check Performance

·

Collaboration

Stabilization

·

·

Future Scenarios

Check Schedule

Post Meeting

·

·

Project Skinny

Check Costs

·

Training/Education

Generate Results

·

·

PM Infrastructure

·

Project Boundaries

Check Benefits

·

Utilization

·

·

Financial Goals

·

Project Vision

·

Check Project ROI

Visibility

·

Performance

·

·

·

Win Conditions

Benefit Plan

·

Go

/

No

-

Go Decision

Early Value

·

Feedback

·

·

Partner Agreements

Benefit Map

·

Fast Failures

·

Corrective Action

·

Wow Factor

Project Changes

·

Uncertainty Profile

Business Questions

Business Questions

Lessons Learned

·

Re-Direct As-Needed

·

·

Go/No-Go Decision

Modify Questions

·

Update Vision

Collective Vision

Team Rewards

·

Update Stakeholders

·

Re-examine Team

Select Core Team

Update Prospectus

Update Prospectus

Track Benefits

DeCarlo, D. (2004). Extreme project management: Using leadership, principles, and tools to deliver value in the face of volatility. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

slide14

Adaptive Project Framework

  • Created by Bob Wysocki for consulting in 2008
  • Designed to be a generic model for non-IT projects
  • Lightweight traditional project management approach

Adaptive Project Framework

Scoping

Planning

Feasibility

Checkpoint

Review

·

·

·

·

·

Identify Opportunity

Identify Project Type

Develop Prototype

Analyze Needs

Finalize Documents

·

·

·

·

·

Develop CoS

Prioritize Constraints

Reprioritize Needs

Evaluation Solution

Lessons Learned

·

·

·

·

·

Write PoS

Develop WBS

Detailed WBS

Estimate Value

Process Changes

·

·

·

·

·

Document Needs

Team Formation

Estimate Resources

Determine Success

Final Report

·

·

·

·

·

Stage Gate 1 Review

Stage Gate 2 Review

Stage Gate 3 Review

Stage Gate 4 Review

Stage Gate 5 Review

Cyclical Product or Service Implementation

Cycle Planning

Product or Service Implementation

Daily Meetings

Cycle Reviews

·

·

·

·

Responsibilities

Select Personnel with Needed Skills

Arrange Facilities

Update Requirements

·

·

·

·

Timelines

Identify Detailed Technical Tasks

Prepare Agendas

Update Scope

·

·

·

·

Work Packages

Create Detailed Architectures and Designs

Send Meeting Notices

Update Schedules

·

·

·

·

Communications

Select and Implement Technical Solutions

Facilitate Meetings

Update Plans

·

·

·

·

Governance

Perform Development and Operational Tests

Record Action Items

Inform Stakeholders

Continuous Improvement

Stage Gate 3.n Review

·

Continually improve process, documents, team, architecture, designs, implementation, tests, etc.

Wysocki, R.F. (2010). Adaptive project framework: Managing complexity in the face of uncertainty. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

14

slide15

Agenda

Intro to Agile Project Mgt.

Types of Agile Project Mgt.

Phases of Agile Project Mgt.

Scaling of Agile Project Mgt.

EVM for Agile Project Mgt.

Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

slide16

Envision Phase

  • Determine product vision and project objectives
  • Identifies project community and project team
  • The major output is a “Product Vision Box”

Envision Phase

Product Vision

·

Product Vision Box

·

Elevator Test Statement

·

Product Roadmap

·

Product Features

Delivery Approach

Product Architecture

·

Product Vision Document

·

·

Product Skeleton Architecture

Self-Organization Strategy

·

·

Collaboration Strategy

Hardware Feature Breakdown

·

·

Communication Strategy

Software Feature Breakdown

·

·

Process Framework Tailoring

Organizational Structure

·

·

Practice Selection and Tailoring

Guiding Principles

Project Community

Project Objectives

·

·

Get the Right People

Project Data Sheet

·

·

Participant Identification

Key Business Objectives

·

·

Types of Stakeholders

Tradeoff Matrix

·

·

List of Stakeholders

Exploration Factor

·

·

Customer-Developer Interaction

Requirements Variability

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide17

Speculate Phase

  • Determine organizational capability/mission needs
  • Identifies feature-sets and system requirements
  • The major output is a “System Release Plan”

Speculate Phase

Gather Requirements

·

Analyze Feasibility Studies

·

Evaluate Marketing Reports

·

Gather Stakeholder Suggestions

·

Examine Competitive Intelligence

Cost Estimation

Product Backlog

·

Collaborate with Customers

·

·

Product Features List

Establish Estimate Scope

·

·

Feature Cards

Establish Technical Baseline

·

·

Performance Requirements

Collect Project Data

·

·

Prioritize Features

Size Project Information

·

·

Prepare Baseline Estimates

Feature Breakdown Structure

Risk Planning

Release Planning

·

·

Risk Identification

Project Startup Activities

·

·

Risk Analysis

Assign Stories to Iterations

·

·

Risk Responses

First Feasible Deployment

·

·

Risk Monitoring

Estimate Feature Velocity

·

·

Risk Control

Determine Product Scope

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide18

Explore Phase

  • Determine technical iteration objectives/approaches
  • Identifies technical tasks and technical practices
  • The major output is an “Operational Element”

Explore Phase

Iteration Management

·

Iteration Planning

·

Estimate Task Size

·

Iteration Length

·

Workload Management

Collaboration

Technical Practices

·

Monitoring Iteration Progress

·

·

Pair Programming

Reduce Technical Debt

·

·

Daily Standup Meetings

Simple Design

·

·

Daily Product Team Interaction

Continuous Integration

·

·

Stakeholder Coordination

Ruthless Automated Testing

·

·

Customer Interactions

Opportunistic Refactoring

Team Decisions

Team Development

·

·

Decision Framing

Focus Team

·

·

Decision Making

Molding Group into Team

·

·

Decision Retrospection

Develop Individual Capabilities

·

·

Leadership and Decision Making

Coach Customers

·

·

Set and Delay Decision Making

Orchestrate Team Rhythm

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide19

Adapt Phase

  • Determine the effectiveness of operational elements
  • Identifies customer feedback and corrective actions
  • The major output is a “Process Improvement Plan”

Adapt Phase

Customer Focus Groups

·

Requirements Reviews

·

Preliminary Design Reviews

·

Critical Design Reviews

·

Product Demonstration Reviews

Adaptive Action

Technical Reviews

·

Acceptance Testing Reviews

·

·

Release Plan Adaptations

Desk Checks/Individual Reviews

·

·

Iteration Plan Adaptations

Structured Walkthroughs

·

·

Feature Set Adaptations

Formal Software Inspections

·

·

User Story Adaptations

Quality Assurance Audits

·

·

Task Plan Adaptations

Configuration Management Audits

Project Reporting

Team Evaluations

·

·

Scope and Quality Status

Communications Quality

·

·

Cost and Schedule Status

Team Cohesiveness

·

·

Risk and Value Status

Interpersonal Trust

·

·

Customer Satisfaction Status

Individual Talent and Effort

·

·

Team and Agility Status

Team Performance/Effectiveness

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide20

Close Phase

  • Determine project outcome and effectiveness
  • Identifies strengths, weaknesses, and rewards
  • The major output is a “Lessons-Learned Report”

Close Phase

Clean Up Open Items

·

Close Open Action Items

·

Close Open Change Requests

·

Close Open Problem Reports

·

Close Open Defect Reports

Project Celebration

Support Material

·

Close Open Project Issues

·

·

Individual Rewards

Finalize Documentation

·

·

Group Rewards

Finalize Production Material

·

·

Partner Rewards

Finalize Manufacturing Material

·

·

Managerial Rewards

Finalize Customer Documentation

·

·

Product Rewards

Finalize Maintenance Information

Final Reports

Final Retrospective

·

·

End-of-Project Reports

Process Performance Assessment

·

·

Administrative Reports

Internal Product Assessment

·

·

Release Notes

External Product Assessment

·

·

Financial Reports

Team Performance Assessment

·

·

Facilities Reports

Project Performance Assessment

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide21

Agenda

Intro to Agile Project Mgt.

Types of Agile Project Mgt.

Phases of Agile Project Mgt.

Scaling of Agile Project Mgt.

EVM for Agile Project Mgt.

Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

slide22

Multi-Level Teams

  • Enables projects to plan for the future and present
  • Decomposes capabilities into implementable pieces
  • Unclogs the drainpipes to let the execution flow freely

Multi-Level Teams

Product Management Team

Product Management Team

·

Chief Product Manager

·

Chief Architect

·

Product Development Manager

·

Release Management Team members (1-2 per release team)

Release Management Team

Release Management Team

·

Product Manager

·

Project Manager

·

Chief Architect

·

Feature team members (1-2 per feature team)

Feature Team

Feature Teams

·

Product Specialist (and owner)

·

Iteration Manager

·

Technical and product Members

·

Development team members (1-2 per development team)

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide23

Multi-Level Planning

  • Enables multiple level enterprise plans to co-exist
  • Allows stakeholders to build viewpoint-specific plans
  • Ensures capabilities are delivered at regular intervals

Multi-Level Planning

Product Roadmap

Product Roadmap

·

Enterprise architecture needs

·

Capability focused

·

Vision, objectives, and backlog

·

18

to

36

weeks

Release Plan

Release Plan

·

Subsystem architecture

·

Feature set focused

·

Strategy, objectives, and backlog

·

6

to

12

weeks

Iteration Plan

Iteration Plan

·

Component-level architecture

·

User story focused

·

Implementation plan, objectives, and backlog

·

2

to

4

weeks

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide24

Multi-Level Backlog

  • Enables multiple levels of abstraction to co-exist
  • Allows customers and developers to communicate
  • Makes optimum use of people’s time and resources

Multi-Level Backlog

Capabilities

Capability

·

Mission goal or objective level

·

High-level business or product function

Capability

Capability

Capability

1

2

3

·

Also called an Epic, i.e., multiple feature sets

·

Comprises

18

-

90

days worth of work

Feature Sets

Feature Set

·

Cross-functional mission threads

Feature

Feature

Feature

·

Related user stories that are grouped together

1

2

3

·

Also called a Theme, i.e., implemented as an entity

·

Comprises

6

to

30

days worth of work

User Stories

User Story

·

Functional, system-level requirements

Story

1

Story

4

Story

7

·

Simple requirement written by customer or user

Story

2

Story

5

Story

8

·

A small unit of functionality having business value

·

Comprises

2

to

10

days worth of work

Story

3

Story

6

Story

9

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide25

Multi-Level Coordination

  • Enables lean and agile methods to scale-up
  • Allows enterprises to create large-scale programs
  • Unleashes optimum productivity and overall control

Multi-Level Coordination

Capability Team

Feature Set Team

Feature Set Team

Feature Set Team

Feature Team

Feature Team

Feature Team

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

slide26

Multi-Level Governance

  • Enables enterprises to achieve functional needs
  • Allows programs to coordinate functional activities
  • Ensures optimal technical performance is achieved

Multi-Level Governance

Governing Team

R

T

S

Functional Team

Functional Team

Functional Team

R

R

R

T

T

T

S

S

S

R

R

R

T

T

T

S

S

S

R

R

R

T

T

T

S

S

S

Feature Team

Feature Team

Feature Team

R

A

D

R

A

D

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S

Q

M

S

Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

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Agenda

Intro to Agile Project Mgt.

Types of Agile Project Mgt.

Phases of Agile Project Mgt.

Scaling of Agile Project Mgt.

EVM for Agile Project Mgt.

Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

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slide28

Burndown

  • Most basic tracking chart for agile projects
  • Tracks number of work or time units completed
  • Commonly used to track no. story points completed

Burndown Chart

Work (Story, Point, Task) or Effort (Week, Day, Hour)

Planning (Roadmap, Release, Iteration) or Time Unit (Month, Week, Day)

Rawsthorne, D. (2009). Agile metrics. Proceedings of the Agile 2009 Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

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slide29

Cumulative Flow

  • Advanced form of cumulative workflow
  • Tracks planned vs. finished work or time units
  • Linear progression with good project performance

Cumulative Flow Diagram

Work (Story, Point, Task) or Effort (Week, Day, Hour)

Planning (Roadmap, Release, Iteration) or Time Unit (Month, Week, Day)

Anderson, D. J. (2004). Agile management for software engineering: Applying the theory of

constraints for business results. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

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slide30

Agile EVM

  • Adaptation of EVM for agile projects
  • Mapping between traditional and agile projects
  • Work completed is more authoritative in agile projects

Agile EVM Chart

CPI

SPI

PPC

Work (Story, Point, Task) or Effort (Week, Day, Hour)

APC

Planning (Roadmap, Release, Iteration) or Time Unit (Month, Week, Day)

Sulaiman, T., Barton, B., & Blackburn, T. (2006). Agile EVM: Earned value management in scrum projects.

Proceedings of the Agile 2006 Conference (Agile 2006), Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 7-16.

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slide31

Earned Business Value

  • ROI is estimated for user stories in agile projects
  • Value accrues with each completed user story
  • Value of completed tasks is more meaningful

Earned Business Value

Work (Story, Point, Task) or Effort (Week, Day, Hour)

Planning (Roadmap, Release, Iteration) or Time Unit (Month, Week, Day)

Rawsthorne, D. (2010). Monitoring scrum projects with agile evm and earned business value metrics. Brisbane, CA: Collab.Net.

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slide32

Agenda

Intro to Agile Project Mgt.

Types of Agile Project Mgt.

Phases of Agile Project Mgt.

Scaling of Agile Project Mgt.

EVM for Agile Project Mgt.

Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

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slide33

Case Studies

  • 70% of worldwide IT projects use agile methods
  • Includes highly-regulated industries like U.S. DoD
  • Even split between top-down and bottom-up adoption

Industry

Org

Project

Purpose

Size

Metrics

·

·

20 teams

1,838 User Stories

Electronic

·

·

Google

Adwords

Advertising

140 people

6,250 Function Points

Commerce

·

·

5 countries

500,000 Lines of Code

·

·

15 teams

26,809 User Stories

Project

Shrink

Primavera

Primavera

·

·

90 people

91,146 Function Points

Management

Wrapped

·

·

Collocated

7,291,666 Lines of Code

·

·

4 teams

1,659 User Stories

Blood

Health

·

·

FDA

m

2000

20 people

5,640 Function Points

Analysis

Care

·

·

Collocated

451,235 Lines of Code

·

·

10 teams

3,947 User Stories

Case File

Law

·

FBI

Sentinel

·

50 people

13,419 Function Points

Workflow

Enforcement

·

·

Collocated

1,073,529 Lines of Code

·

·

3 teams

390 User Stories

Knowledge

U.S.

·

·

Stratcom

SKIweb

12 people

1,324 Function Points

Management

DoD

·

·

Collocated

105,958 Lines of Code

Rico, D. F. (2010). Lean and agile project management: For large programs and projects. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Lean Enterprise Software and Systems, Helsinki, Finland, 37-43.

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slide34

Leadership Considerations

  • Agile management is delegated to the lowest level
  • There remain key leadership roles & responsibilities
  • Communication, coaching, & facilitation are key ones

Facilitate selection of methods for obtaining and maintaining executive commitment, project resources, corporate communications, and customer interaction

Customer Communication

Facilitate selection of methods for communicating product purpose, goals, objectives, mission, vision, business value, scope, performance, budget, assumptions, constraints, etc.

Product Visioning

Distribution Strategy

Facilitate selection of virtual team distribution strategy to satisfy project goals and objectives

Facilitate selection of methods for training, coaching, mentoring, and other team building approaches

Team Development

Facilitate selection of project management and technical practices, conventions, roles, responsibilities, and performance measures

Standards & Practices

Telecom Infrastructure

Facilitate selection of high bandwidth telecommunication products and services

Development Tools

Facilitate selection of agile project management tools and interactive development environment

High Context Meetings

Facilitate selection of high context agile project management and development meetings

Facilitate selection of meetings and forums for regular communications between site coordinators

Coordination Meetings

Facilitate selection of methods for maximizing periodic face to face interactions and collaboration

F2F Communications

Facilities selection of methods for process improvement, problem resolution, conflict management, team recognition, product performance, and customer satisfaction

Performance Management

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Rico, D. F. (2010). The paradox of agile project management and virtual teams. Fairfax, VA: Gantthead.Com.

slide35

Advanced Agile Measures

  • Agile Methods are a fundamentally new paradigm
  • Agile Methods are “not” lighter Traditional Methods
  • They should not be viewed through a traditional lens

Customer Collaboration

Contracts

Interaction frequency

Customer trust

valued

·

·

Contract compliance

·

more than

Comm. quality

Customer loyalty

Contract deliverables

·

·

·

Relationship strength

Customer satisfaction

·

Contract change orders

·

·

Individuals & Interactions

Processes

valued

Team competence

Team trust

Lifecycle compliance

·

·

·

more than

Team motivation

Team cohesion

Process Maturity Level

·

·

·

Team cooperation

Team communications

Regulatory compliance

·

·

·

Traditional Metrics

Agile Metrics

Working Software

Documentation

valued

Iteration size

Operational builds

Document deliveries

·

·

·

more than

Iteration length

Operational releases

Document comments

·

·

·

Iteration number

Verified/Validated releases

Document compliance

·

·

·

Responding to Change

Project Plans

valued

·

Org. flexibility

Process flexibility

Cost Compliance

·

·

more than

·

Mgt. flexibility

Design flexibility

Scope Compliance

·

·

·

Individual flexibility

Technology flexibility

Schedule Compliance

·

·

Rico, D. F., Sayani, H. H., & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods: Maximizing ROI with just-in-time processes and documentation. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing.

slide36

Organizational Change

  • Change, no matter how small or large, is difficult
  • Smaller focused changes help to cross the chasm
  • Shrinking, simplifying, and motivation are key factors

How to Cross the Chasm

Switch How to Change Things When Change is Hard

Influencer The Power to Change Anything

Make the Undesirable Desirable

Direct the Rider

·

Create new experiences - Make it interesting

·

Follow the bright spots - Clone what works

·

Create new motives - Appeal to sensibility

·

Script the critical moves - Use prescriptive behaviors

Surpass your Limits

·

Point to the destination - Focus on the end game

·

Perfect complex skills - Establish milestones

·

Build emotional skills - Build maturity and people skills

Harness Peer Pressure

Motivate the Elephant

·

Recruit public personalities - Involve public figures

·

Find the feeling - Appeal to emotion

·

Recruit influential leaders - Involve recognized figures

·

Shrink the change - Use incremental change

Find Strength in Numbers

·

Grow your people - Invest in training and education

·

Utilize teamwork - Enlist others to help out

·

Enlist the power of social capital - Scale up and out

Design Rewards and Demand Accountability

Shape the Path

·

Use incentives wisely - Reward vital behaviors

·

Tweak the environment - Simplify the change

·

Use punishment sparingly - Warn before taking action

·

Build habits - Create simple recipes for action

Change the Environment

·

Rally the herd - Get everyone involved

·

Make it easy - Simplify the change

·

Make it unavoidable - Build change into daily routine

Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to change things when change is hard. New York, NY: Random House.

Patterson, K., et al. (2008). Influencer: The power to change anything: New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

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slide37

Agile Contracting Models

  • New contract models emerged for agile contracts
  • Goals, objectives, and visions are established early
  • Buyers and suppliers collaborate throughout contract

Contract Type

Description

Dynamic Value

Specify initial scope and needs (with iterative enhancements)

Performance Based

Establish performance objectives (but not technical solutions)

Target Cost

Broad boundaries for time, cost, and quality (but not scope)

Optional Scope

Set minimum and maximum costs (based on initial scope)

Collaborative

Outline initial scope (with fixed no. of releases and iterations)

Lean

Lean tools such as small batches, Kanban, WIP constraints, etc.

Rico, D. F. (2011). The necessity of new contract models for agile project management. Fairfax, VA: Gantthead.Com.

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slide38

How do Lean & Agile Intersect?

  • Agile is naturally lean and based on small batches
  • Agile directly supports six principles of lean thinking
  • Agile may be converted to a continuous flow system

Agile Values

Lean Pillars

Lean Principles

Lean & Agile Practices

Flow Principles

·

Customer relationships, satisfaction, trust, and loyalty

Relationships

·

Decentralization

Team authority, empowerment, and resources

Empowered

Teams

·

Team identification, cohesion, and communication

·

Product vision, mission, needs, and capabilities

Respect

for People

·

Customer Value

Economic View

Product scope, constraints, and business value

·

Product objectives, specifications, and performance

Customer

Collaboration

·

As is policies, processes, procedures, and instructions

WIP Constraints

& Kanban

·

Value Stream

To be business processes, flowcharts, and swim lanes

·

Initial workflow analysis, metrication, and optimization

·

Batch size, work in process, and artifact size constraints

Control Cadence

& Small Batches

Continuous Flow

·

Cadence, queue size, buffers, slack, and bottlenecks

Iterative

Delivery

·

Workflow, test, integration, and deployment automation

·

Roadmaps, releases, iterations, and product priorities

Continuous

Improvement

Customer Pull

·

Fast Feedback

Epics, themes, feature sets, features, and user stories

·

Product demonstrations, feedback, and new backlogs

Responding

to Change

·

Refactor, test driven design, and continuous integration

Manage Queues/

Exploit Variability

Perfection

·

Standups, retrospectives, and process improvements

·

Organization, project, and process adaptability/flexibility

Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York, NY: Free Press.

Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The principles of product development flow: Second generation lean product development. New York, NY: Celeritas.

Reagan, R. B., & Rico, D. F. (2010). Lean and agile acquisition and systems engineering: A paradigm whose time has come. DoD AT&L Magazine, 39(6).

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Conclusion

  • Agility is the evolution of management thought
  • Confluence of traditional and non-traditional ideas
  • Improve performance by over an order-of-magnitude

“The traditional world of project management belongs to yesterday”

“Don’t waste your time using traditional project management on 21st century projects”

Hoque, F., et al. (2007). Business technology convergence. The role of business technology convergence in innovation and adaptability and its effect on financial performance. Stamford, CT: BTM Institute.

slide40

APM Textbooks

  • Over 15 text books for agile project management
  • Many of them stem from Planning XP by Kent Beck
  • Agile Project Mgt. by Jim Highsmith is most complete

Beck, K., & Fowler, M. (2001). Planning extreme programming. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.

Schwaber, K. (2004). Agile project management with scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.

Highsmith, J. A. (2004). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

DeCarlo, D. (2004). Extreme project management: Using leadership, principles, and tools to deliver value in the face of volatility. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wysocki, R.F. (2010). Adaptive project framework: Managing complexity in the face of uncertainty. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

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