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  1. Lean & AgileProject Management for Large Programs & Projects Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSM Twitter: @dr_david_f_rico Website: http://www.davidfrico.com LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/davidfrico Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1540017424

  2. Author Background • DoD contractor with 28+ years of IT experience • B.S. Comp. Sci., M.S. Soft. Eng., & D.M. Info. Sys. • Large gov’t projects in U.S., Far/Mid-East, & Europe • Published six books & numerous journal articles • Adjunct at George Washington, UMUC, & Argosy • Agile Program Management & Lean Development • Specializes in metrics, models, & cost engineering • Six Sigma, CMMI, ISO 9001, DoDAF, & DoD 5000 • Cloud Computing, SOA, Web Services, FOSS, etc.

  3. Agenda Intro to Agile Project Mgt. Types of Agile Project Mgt. Phases of Agile Project Mgt. Scaling of Agile Project Mgt. EVM for Agile Project Mgt. Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

  4. Today’s Whirlwind Environment Global Competition Work Life Imbalance Demanding Customers · Overruns Vague · Attrition Requirements · Escalation · Runaways · Cancellation Organization Downsizing Technology Change System Complexity

  5. What is Agility? • A-gil-i-ty (ə-'ji-lə-tē) Property consisting of quickness, lightness, and ease of movement; To be very nimble • The ability to create and respond to changein order to profit in a turbulent global business environment • The ability to quickly reprioritizeuse of resources when requirements, technology, and knowledge shift • A very fast responseto sudden market changes and emerging threats by intensive customer interaction • Use of evolutionary, incremental, and iterative delivery to converge on an optimal customer solution • Maximizing the Business Value with right sized, just-enough, and just-in-time processes and documentation F E Highsmith, J. A. (2002). Agile software development ecosystems. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. 5

  6. Values of Agile Project Mgt. • People-centric way to create innovative solutions • Market-centric model to maximize business value • Alternativeto large document-based methodologies Agile Methods Agile Methods Traditional Methods ‘Values’ ‘Principles’ ‘Values’ Customer Interaction Customer Collaboration Contract Negotiation valued more than also known as High Performance Teams Individuals & Interactions Processes & Tools also known as valued more than Iterative Development Working Systems Comprehensive Documentation also known as valued more than Adaptability or Flexibility Responding to Change Following a Plan also known as valued more than Agile Manifesto. (2001). Manifesto for agile software development. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from http://www.agilemanifesto.org

  7. When to use Agile Proj. Mgt. • On exploratory or research/development projects • When fast customer responsiveness is paramount • In organizations that are highly innovative & creative Traditional Project Management Agile Project Management · · Predictable situations High levels of uncertainty and unpredictability · · Low technology projects High technology projects · · Stable, slow moving industries Fast paced, highly competitive industries · · Low levels of technological change Rapid pace of technological change · · Repeatable operations Research oriented, discovery projects · · Low rates of changing project performance Large fluctuations in project performance · · Long term, fixed price production contracts Shorter term, performance based RDT&E contracts · · Achieving concise economic efficiency goals Achieving high impact product/service effectiveness · · Highly administrative contracts Highly creative new product development contracts · · Mass production and high volume manufacturing Customer intensive, one off product/service solutions · · Highly predictable and stable market conditions Highly volatile and unstable market conditions · · Low margin industries such as commodities High margin, intellectually intensive industries · · Delivering value at the point of plan Delivering value at the point of sale Pine, B. J. (1993). Mass customization: The new frontier in business competition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 7

  8. Agile World View • “Agility” has many dimensions other than IT • It ranges from leadership to technological agility • The focus of this brief is program managementagility Agile Leaders Agile Organization Change Agile Acquisition & Contracting Agile Strategic Planning F E Agile Capability Analysis Agile Program Management Agile Project Management Agile Systems Development Agile Processes & Practices Agile Tools Agile Information Systems Agile Tech.

  9. Agenda Intro to Agile Project Mgt. Types of Agile Project Mgt. Phases of Agile Project Mgt. Scaling of Agile Project Mgt. EVM for Agile Project Mgt. Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

  10. Scrum Project Management • Created by Jeff Sutherland at Easel in 1993 • Product backlog comprised of customer needs • Barely-sufficient project management framework Initial Planning Sprint Cycle Discovery Session Sprint · · Select Tasks and Create Tests Agile Training · Create Simple Designs · Project Discovery · Code and Test Software Units · Process Discovery · Perform Integration Testing · Team Discovery · Maintain Daily Burndown Chart · Initial Backlog · Update Sprint Backlog Release Planning Sprint Planning Daily Scrum Sprint Review · · · · Set Sprint Capacity Completed Backlog Items Present Backlog Items Business Case · · · Identify Tasks Planned Backlog Items Record Feedback · Desired Backlog · · · Estimate Tasks Impediments to Progress Adjust Backlog · Hi - Level Estimates · Prioritize Backlog · Finalize Backlog Sprint Retrospective Product Backlog Sprint Backlog Potentially Shippable Product · · · Prioritized Requirements List of Technical Tasks Assigned to a Sprint Working Operational Software Schwaber, K. (2004). Agile project management with scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.

  11. XP Project Management • Created by Kent Beck at Chrysler in 1998 • Release plan is comprised of customer needs • Lightweight, rigorous near-term planning element Release Planning Iteration Planning Exploration Phase Exploration Phase · · · · Build a Team Split User Stories Analyze Release Plan Read User Stories · · · · Write User Stories Spike User Stories Identify Iteration Goal Develop Tasks · · · · Estimate User Stories Write User Tests Select User Stories Split Tasks Commitment Phase Commitment Phase · · · · Sort by Value Choose a Scope Accept Tasks Analyze Schedules · · · · Sort by Risk Set Iteration Length Set Individual Velocity Set Load Factors · · · · Set Velocity Develop Release Plan Estimate Tasks Balance Tasks Steering Phase Steering Phase · · · · Select Iteration New Release Plan Select Partner Unit/Integration Test · · · · Adjust Velocity Select Tools Write Unit Tests User Acceptance Test · · · · Record Progress Insert New Stories Adjust Teams Design and Code Beck, K., & Fowler, M. (2001). Planning extreme programming. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.

  12. Agile Project Management • Created by Jim Highsmith at Cutter in 2003 • Focus on strategic plans and capability analysis • Most holistic agile project management framework Innovation Lifecycle Envision Speculate Explore Launch Close · · · · · Product Vision Gather Requirements Iteration Management Final Review Clean Up Open Items · · · · · Product Architecture Product Backlog Technical Practices Final Acceptance Support Material · · · · · Project Objectives Release Planning Team Development Final QA Final Retrospective · · · · · Project Community Risk Planning Team Decisions Final Documentation Final Reports · · · · · Delivery Approach Cost Estimation Collaboration Final Deployment Project Celebration Iterative Delivery Technical Planning Development, Test, & Evaluation Operational Testing Adapt · · · · Story Analysis Development Pairing Integration Testing Focus Groups · · · · Task Development Unit Test Development System Testing Technical Reviews · · · · Task Estimation Simple Designs Operational Testing Team Evaluations · · · · Task Splitting Coding and Refactoring Usability Testing Project Reporting · · · · Task Planning Unit and Component Testing Acceptance Testing Adaptive Action Continuous Story Deployment · Standups, Architecture, Design, Build, Integration, Documentation, Change, Migration, and Integration Highsmith, J. A. (2004). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  13. Flexible Project Management • Created by Doug DeCarlo at Cutter in 2004 • Focus is on collaboration, scoping, and speed • Thinner traditional project management approach Visionate Speculate Innovate Re-Evaluate Disseminate Sponsor’s Vision Planning Meeting Learning by Doing Business Questions Product Launch · · · · · Interview Sponsor Collective Vision SCORE Model Who Needs It? Acceptance Testing · · · · · Describe Objectives Size Deliverables Architecture What Will It Take? Documentation · · · · · Project Prospectus Map Schedule Development Can We Get It? Support Plan · · · · · Business Questions Choose Life Cycle Construction Is It Worth It? Maintenance Plan · · · Requirements ID’d Testing Deploy Solution · · · Development Tools Time Boxing Customer Service Collective Vision Project Review · · Risk Planning Trial and Error · · Scope Meeting Check Performance · Collaboration Stabilization · · Future Scenarios Check Schedule Post Meeting · · Project Skinny Check Costs · Training/Education Generate Results · · PM Infrastructure · Project Boundaries Check Benefits · Utilization · · Financial Goals · Project Vision · Check Project ROI Visibility · Performance · · · Win Conditions Benefit Plan · Go / No - Go Decision Early Value · Feedback · · Partner Agreements Benefit Map · Fast Failures · Corrective Action · Wow Factor Project Changes · Uncertainty Profile Business Questions Business Questions Lessons Learned · Re-Direct As-Needed · · Go/No-Go Decision Modify Questions · Update Vision Collective Vision Team Rewards · Update Stakeholders · Re-examine Team Select Core Team Update Prospectus Update Prospectus Track Benefits DeCarlo, D. (2004). Extreme project management: Using leadership, principles, and tools to deliver value in the face of volatility. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  14. Adaptive Project Framework • Created by Bob Wysocki for consulting in 2008 • Designed to be a generic model for non-IT projects • Lightweight traditional project management approach Adaptive Project Framework Scoping Planning Feasibility Checkpoint Review · · · · · Identify Opportunity Identify Project Type Develop Prototype Analyze Needs Finalize Documents · · · · · Develop CoS Prioritize Constraints Reprioritize Needs Evaluation Solution Lessons Learned · · · · · Write PoS Develop WBS Detailed WBS Estimate Value Process Changes · · · · · Document Needs Team Formation Estimate Resources Determine Success Final Report · · · · · Stage Gate 1 Review Stage Gate 2 Review Stage Gate 3 Review Stage Gate 4 Review Stage Gate 5 Review Cyclical Product or Service Implementation Cycle Planning Product or Service Implementation Daily Meetings Cycle Reviews · · · · Responsibilities Select Personnel with Needed Skills Arrange Facilities Update Requirements · · · · Timelines Identify Detailed Technical Tasks Prepare Agendas Update Scope · · · · Work Packages Create Detailed Architectures and Designs Send Meeting Notices Update Schedules · · · · Communications Select and Implement Technical Solutions Facilitate Meetings Update Plans · · · · Governance Perform Development and Operational Tests Record Action Items Inform Stakeholders Continuous Improvement Stage Gate 3.n Review · Continually improve process, documents, team, architecture, designs, implementation, tests, etc. Wysocki, R.F. (2010). Adaptive project framework: Managing complexity in the face of uncertainty. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 14

  15. Agenda Intro to Agile Project Mgt. Types of Agile Project Mgt. Phases of Agile Project Mgt. Scaling of Agile Project Mgt. EVM for Agile Project Mgt. Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

  16. Envision Phase • Determine product vision and project objectives • Identifies project community and project team • The major output is a “Product Vision Box” Envision Phase Product Vision · Product Vision Box · Elevator Test Statement · Product Roadmap · Product Features Delivery Approach Product Architecture · Product Vision Document · · Product Skeleton Architecture Self-Organization Strategy · · Collaboration Strategy Hardware Feature Breakdown · · Communication Strategy Software Feature Breakdown · · Process Framework Tailoring Organizational Structure · · Practice Selection and Tailoring Guiding Principles Project Community Project Objectives · · Get the Right People Project Data Sheet · · Participant Identification Key Business Objectives · · Types of Stakeholders Tradeoff Matrix · · List of Stakeholders Exploration Factor · · Customer-Developer Interaction Requirements Variability Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  17. Speculate Phase • Determine organizational capability/mission needs • Identifies feature-sets and system requirements • The major output is a “System Release Plan” Speculate Phase Gather Requirements · Analyze Feasibility Studies · Evaluate Marketing Reports · Gather Stakeholder Suggestions · Examine Competitive Intelligence Cost Estimation Product Backlog · Collaborate with Customers · · Product Features List Establish Estimate Scope · · Feature Cards Establish Technical Baseline · · Performance Requirements Collect Project Data · · Prioritize Features Size Project Information · · Prepare Baseline Estimates Feature Breakdown Structure Risk Planning Release Planning · · Risk Identification Project Startup Activities · · Risk Analysis Assign Stories to Iterations · · Risk Responses First Feasible Deployment · · Risk Monitoring Estimate Feature Velocity · · Risk Control Determine Product Scope Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  18. Explore Phase • Determine technical iteration objectives/approaches • Identifies technical tasks and technical practices • The major output is an “Operational Element” Explore Phase Iteration Management · Iteration Planning · Estimate Task Size · Iteration Length · Workload Management Collaboration Technical Practices · Monitoring Iteration Progress · · Pair Programming Reduce Technical Debt · · Daily Standup Meetings Simple Design · · Daily Product Team Interaction Continuous Integration · · Stakeholder Coordination Ruthless Automated Testing · · Customer Interactions Opportunistic Refactoring Team Decisions Team Development · · Decision Framing Focus Team · · Decision Making Molding Group into Team · · Decision Retrospection Develop Individual Capabilities · · Leadership and Decision Making Coach Customers · · Set and Delay Decision Making Orchestrate Team Rhythm Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  19. Adapt Phase • Determine the effectiveness of operational elements • Identifies customer feedback and corrective actions • The major output is a “Process Improvement Plan” Adapt Phase Customer Focus Groups · Requirements Reviews · Preliminary Design Reviews · Critical Design Reviews · Product Demonstration Reviews Adaptive Action Technical Reviews · Acceptance Testing Reviews · · Release Plan Adaptations Desk Checks/Individual Reviews · · Iteration Plan Adaptations Structured Walkthroughs · · Feature Set Adaptations Formal Software Inspections · · User Story Adaptations Quality Assurance Audits · · Task Plan Adaptations Configuration Management Audits Project Reporting Team Evaluations · · Scope and Quality Status Communications Quality · · Cost and Schedule Status Team Cohesiveness · · Risk and Value Status Interpersonal Trust · · Customer Satisfaction Status Individual Talent and Effort · · Team and Agility Status Team Performance/Effectiveness Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  20. Close Phase • Determine project outcome and effectiveness • Identifies strengths, weaknesses, and rewards • The major output is a “Lessons-Learned Report” Close Phase Clean Up Open Items · Close Open Action Items · Close Open Change Requests · Close Open Problem Reports · Close Open Defect Reports Project Celebration Support Material · Close Open Project Issues · · Individual Rewards Finalize Documentation · · Group Rewards Finalize Production Material · · Partner Rewards Finalize Manufacturing Material · · Managerial Rewards Finalize Customer Documentation · · Product Rewards Finalize Maintenance Information Final Reports Final Retrospective · · End-of-Project Reports Process Performance Assessment · · Administrative Reports Internal Product Assessment · · Release Notes External Product Assessment · · Financial Reports Team Performance Assessment · · Facilities Reports Project Performance Assessment Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  21. Agenda Intro to Agile Project Mgt. Types of Agile Project Mgt. Phases of Agile Project Mgt. Scaling of Agile Project Mgt. EVM for Agile Project Mgt. Summary of Agile Project Mgt.

  22. Multi-Level Teams • Enables projects to plan for the future and present • Decomposes capabilities into implementable pieces • Unclogs the drainpipes to let the execution flow freely Multi-Level Teams Product Management Team Product Management Team · Chief Product Manager · Chief Architect · Product Development Manager · Release Management Team members (1-2 per release team) Release Management Team Release Management Team · Product Manager · Project Manager · Chief Architect · Feature team members (1-2 per feature team) Feature Team Feature Teams · Product Specialist (and owner) · Iteration Manager · Technical and product Members · Development team members (1-2 per development team) Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  23. Multi-Level Planning • Enables multiple level enterprise plans to co-exist • Allows stakeholders to build viewpoint-specific plans • Ensures capabilities are delivered at regular intervals Multi-Level Planning Product Roadmap Product Roadmap · Enterprise architecture needs · Capability focused · Vision, objectives, and backlog · 18 to 36 weeks Release Plan Release Plan · Subsystem architecture · Feature set focused · Strategy, objectives, and backlog · 6 to 12 weeks Iteration Plan Iteration Plan · Component-level architecture · User story focused · Implementation plan, objectives, and backlog · 2 to 4 weeks Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  24. Multi-Level Backlog • Enables multiple levels of abstraction to co-exist • Allows customers and developers to communicate • Makes optimum use of people’s time and resources Multi-Level Backlog Capabilities Capability · Mission goal or objective level · High-level business or product function Capability Capability Capability 1 2 3 · Also called an Epic, i.e., multiple feature sets · Comprises 18 - 90 days worth of work Feature Sets Feature Set · Cross-functional mission threads Feature Feature Feature · Related user stories that are grouped together 1 2 3 · Also called a Theme, i.e., implemented as an entity · Comprises 6 to 30 days worth of work User Stories User Story · Functional, system-level requirements Story 1 Story 4 Story 7 · Simple requirement written by customer or user Story 2 Story 5 Story 8 · A small unit of functionality having business value · Comprises 2 to 10 days worth of work Story 3 Story 6 Story 9 Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  25. Multi-Level Coordination • Enables lean and agile methods to scale-up • Allows enterprises to create large-scale programs • Unleashes optimum productivity and overall control Multi-Level Coordination Capability Team Feature Set Team Feature Set Team Feature Set Team Feature Team Feature Team Feature Team Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  26. Multi-Level Governance • Enables enterprises to achieve functional needs • Allows programs to coordinate functional activities • Ensures optimal technical performance is achieved Multi-Level Governance Governing Team R T S Functional Team Functional Team Functional Team R R R T T T S S S R R R T T T S S S R R R T T T S S S Feature Team Feature Team Feature Team R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D R A D I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C I T C Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Q M S Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  27. Agenda Intro to Agile Project Mgt. Types of Agile Project Mgt. Phases of Agile Project Mgt. Scaling of Agile Project Mgt. EVM for Agile Project Mgt. Summary of Agile Project Mgt. 27

  28. Burndown • Most basic tracking chart for agile projects • Tracks number of work or time units completed • Commonly used to track no. story points completed Burndown Chart Work (Story, Point, Task) or Effort (Week, Day, Hour) Planning (Roadmap, Release, Iteration) or Time Unit (Month, Week, Day) Rawsthorne, D. (2009). Agile metrics. Proceedings of the Agile 2009 Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 28

  29. Cumulative Flow • Advanced form of cumulative workflow • Tracks planned vs. finished work or time units • Linear progression with good project performance Cumulative Flow Diagram Work (Story, Point, Task) or Effort (Week, Day, Hour) Planning (Roadmap, Release, Iteration) or Time Unit (Month, Week, Day) Anderson, D. J. (2004). Agile management for software engineering: Applying the theory of constraints for business results. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. 29

  30. Agile EVM • Adaptation of EVM for agile projects • Mapping between traditional and agile projects • Work completed is more authoritative in agile projects Agile EVM Chart CPI SPI PPC Work (Story, Point, Task) or Effort (Week, Day, Hour) APC Planning (Roadmap, Release, Iteration) or Time Unit (Month, Week, Day) Sulaiman, T., Barton, B., & Blackburn, T. (2006). Agile EVM: Earned value management in scrum projects. Proceedings of the Agile 2006 Conference (Agile 2006), Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 7-16. 30

  31. Earned Business Value • ROI is estimated for user stories in agile projects • Value accrues with each completed user story • Value of completed tasks is more meaningful Earned Business Value Work (Story, Point, Task) or Effort (Week, Day, Hour) Planning (Roadmap, Release, Iteration) or Time Unit (Month, Week, Day) Rawsthorne, D. (2010). Monitoring scrum projects with agile evm and earned business value metrics. Brisbane, CA: Collab.Net. 31

  32. Agenda Intro to Agile Project Mgt. Types of Agile Project Mgt. Phases of Agile Project Mgt. Scaling of Agile Project Mgt. EVM for Agile Project Mgt. Summary of Agile Project Mgt. 32

  33. Case Studies • 70% of worldwide IT projects use agile methods • Includes highly-regulated industries like U.S. DoD • Even split between top-down and bottom-up adoption Industry Org Project Purpose Size Metrics · · 20 teams 1,838 User Stories Electronic · · Google Adwords Advertising 140 people 6,250 Function Points Commerce · · 5 countries 500,000 Lines of Code · · 15 teams 26,809 User Stories Project Shrink Primavera Primavera · · 90 people 91,146 Function Points Management Wrapped · · Collocated 7,291,666 Lines of Code · · 4 teams 1,659 User Stories Blood Health · · FDA m 2000 20 people 5,640 Function Points Analysis Care · · Collocated 451,235 Lines of Code · · 10 teams 3,947 User Stories Case File Law · FBI Sentinel · 50 people 13,419 Function Points Workflow Enforcement · · Collocated 1,073,529 Lines of Code · · 3 teams 390 User Stories Knowledge U.S. · · Stratcom SKIweb 12 people 1,324 Function Points Management DoD · · Collocated 105,958 Lines of Code Rico, D. F. (2010). Lean and agile project management: For large programs and projects. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Lean Enterprise Software and Systems, Helsinki, Finland, 37-43. 33

  34. Leadership Considerations • Agile management is delegated to the lowest level • There remain key leadership roles & responsibilities • Communication, coaching, & facilitation are key ones Facilitate selection of methods for obtaining and maintaining executive commitment, project resources, corporate communications, and customer interaction Customer Communication  Facilitate selection of methods for communicating product purpose, goals, objectives, mission, vision, business value, scope, performance, budget, assumptions, constraints, etc. Product Visioning Distribution Strategy Facilitate selection of virtual team distribution strategy to satisfy project goals and objectives Facilitate selection of methods for training, coaching, mentoring, and other team building approaches Team Development  Facilitate selection of project management and technical practices, conventions, roles, responsibilities, and performance measures Standards & Practices Telecom Infrastructure Facilitate selection of high bandwidth telecommunication products and services Development Tools Facilitate selection of agile project management tools and interactive development environment High Context Meetings Facilitate selection of high context agile project management and development meetings  Facilitate selection of meetings and forums for regular communications between site coordinators Coordination Meetings Facilitate selection of methods for maximizing periodic face to face interactions and collaboration F2F Communications Facilities selection of methods for process improvement, problem resolution, conflict management, team recognition, product performance, and customer satisfaction Performance Management 34 Rico, D. F. (2010). The paradox of agile project management and virtual teams. Fairfax, VA: Gantthead.Com.

  35. Advanced Agile Measures • Agile Methods are a fundamentally new paradigm • Agile Methods are “not” lighter Traditional Methods • They should not be viewed through a traditional lens Customer Collaboration Contracts Interaction frequency Customer trust valued · · Contract compliance · more than Comm. quality Customer loyalty Contract deliverables · · · Relationship strength Customer satisfaction · Contract change orders · · Individuals & Interactions Processes valued Team competence Team trust Lifecycle compliance · · · more than Team motivation Team cohesion Process Maturity Level · · · Team cooperation Team communications Regulatory compliance · · · Traditional Metrics Agile Metrics Working Software Documentation valued Iteration size Operational builds Document deliveries · · · more than Iteration length Operational releases Document comments · · · Iteration number Verified/Validated releases Document compliance · · · Responding to Change Project Plans valued · Org. flexibility Process flexibility Cost Compliance · · more than · Mgt. flexibility Design flexibility Scope Compliance · · · Individual flexibility Technology flexibility Schedule Compliance · · Rico, D. F., Sayani, H. H., & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods: Maximizing ROI with just-in-time processes and documentation. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing.

  36. Organizational Change • Change, no matter how small or large, is difficult • Smaller focused changes help to cross the chasm • Shrinking, simplifying, and motivation are key factors How to Cross the Chasm Switch How to Change Things When Change is Hard Influencer The Power to Change Anything Make the Undesirable Desirable Direct the Rider · Create new experiences - Make it interesting · Follow the bright spots - Clone what works · Create new motives - Appeal to sensibility · Script the critical moves - Use prescriptive behaviors Surpass your Limits · Point to the destination - Focus on the end game · Perfect complex skills - Establish milestones · Build emotional skills - Build maturity and people skills Harness Peer Pressure Motivate the Elephant · Recruit public personalities - Involve public figures · Find the feeling - Appeal to emotion · Recruit influential leaders - Involve recognized figures · Shrink the change - Use incremental change Find Strength in Numbers · Grow your people - Invest in training and education · Utilize teamwork - Enlist others to help out · Enlist the power of social capital - Scale up and out Design Rewards and Demand Accountability Shape the Path · Use incentives wisely - Reward vital behaviors · Tweak the environment - Simplify the change · Use punishment sparingly - Warn before taking action · Build habits - Create simple recipes for action Change the Environment · Rally the herd - Get everyone involved · Make it easy - Simplify the change · Make it unavoidable - Build change into daily routine Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to change things when change is hard. New York, NY: Random House. Patterson, K., et al. (2008). Influencer: The power to change anything: New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 36

  37. Agile Contracting Models • New contract models emerged for agile contracts • Goals, objectives, and visions are established early • Buyers and suppliers collaborate throughout contract Contract Type Description Dynamic Value Specify initial scope and needs (with iterative enhancements) Performance Based Establish performance objectives (but not technical solutions) Target Cost Broad boundaries for time, cost, and quality (but not scope) Optional Scope Set minimum and maximum costs (based on initial scope) Collaborative Outline initial scope (with fixed no. of releases and iterations) Lean Lean tools such as small batches, Kanban, WIP constraints, etc. Rico, D. F. (2011). The necessity of new contract models for agile project management. Fairfax, VA: Gantthead.Com. 37

  38. How do Lean & Agile Intersect? • Agile is naturally lean and based on small batches • Agile directly supports six principles of lean thinking • Agile may be converted to a continuous flow system Agile Values Lean Pillars Lean Principles Lean & Agile Practices Flow Principles · Customer relationships, satisfaction, trust, and loyalty Relationships · Decentralization Team authority, empowerment, and resources Empowered Teams · Team identification, cohesion, and communication · Product vision, mission, needs, and capabilities Respect for People · Customer Value Economic View Product scope, constraints, and business value · Product objectives, specifications, and performance Customer Collaboration · As is policies, processes, procedures, and instructions WIP Constraints & Kanban · Value Stream To be business processes, flowcharts, and swim lanes · Initial workflow analysis, metrication, and optimization · Batch size, work in process, and artifact size constraints Control Cadence & Small Batches Continuous Flow · Cadence, queue size, buffers, slack, and bottlenecks Iterative Delivery · Workflow, test, integration, and deployment automation · Roadmaps, releases, iterations, and product priorities Continuous Improvement Customer Pull · Fast Feedback Epics, themes, feature sets, features, and user stories · Product demonstrations, feedback, and new backlogs Responding to Change · Refactor, test driven design, and continuous integration Manage Queues/ Exploit Variability Perfection · Standups, retrospectives, and process improvements · Organization, project, and process adaptability/flexibility    Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York, NY: Free Press. Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The principles of product development flow: Second generation lean product development. New York, NY: Celeritas. Reagan, R. B., & Rico, D. F. (2010). Lean and agile acquisition and systems engineering: A paradigm whose time has come. DoD AT&L Magazine, 39(6). 38

  39. Conclusion • Agility is the evolution of management thought • Confluence of traditional and non-traditional ideas • Improve performance by over an order-of-magnitude “The traditional world of project management belongs to yesterday” “Don’t waste your time using traditional project management on 21st century projects” Hoque, F., et al. (2007). Business technology convergence. The role of business technology convergence in innovation and adaptability and its effect on financial performance. Stamford, CT: BTM Institute.

  40. APM Textbooks • Over 15 text books for agile project management • Many of them stem from Planning XP by Kent Beck • Agile Project Mgt. by Jim Highsmith is most complete Beck, K., & Fowler, M. (2001). Planning extreme programming. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley. Schwaber, K. (2004). Agile project management with scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press. Highsmith, J. A. (2004). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. DeCarlo, D. (2004). Extreme project management: Using leadership, principles, and tools to deliver value in the face of volatility. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Wysocki, R.F. (2010). Adaptive project framework: Managing complexity in the face of uncertainty. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 40