Hooligans Football violences
Summary • History • Cross-national variations • Racism • Alcohol and football violence • Solutions against hooligans
I - History • The game of football has been associated with violence since its beginnings in 13th century England. • The much more disciplined game introduced to continental Europe in 1900s was the reformed pastime of the British aristocracy. • The behaviour now known as 'football hooliganism' originated in England in the early 1960s, and has been linked with the televising of matches • In other European countries, similar patterns of behaviour emerged about 10 years later, in the early 1970s
II - Cross-national variations • England Country where hooliganism appeared Social class has been a significantfactor in England, The national team More controled fans in Europe
Italy Ultras Currently the country the more violent in europe Violences against other teams and against police
France and other countries. Different fan style: italian, and english style in different cities 10% of supporters classifiable as 'violent'
III - Racism • In one survey, 20% of German fans reported sympathies with the neo-Nazi movement.In many cases, however, Nazi symbols and slogans may be used purely to shock and provoke, without any underlying political conviction. • In italy too, in particulary the Lazio Rome, where fascist symbols are showed in the stadium and the star of the team DiCanio show his fascist ideas.
IV - Alcohol and football violence • Football violence in Britain is often reported in the media as resulting from excessive alcohol consumption. • Other groups of fans, such as the Italian Ultras, rarely drink to excess when attending football matches and the role of alcohol in football violence in that country is thought to be completely insignificant.
V - Solutions against hooligans • Police Charges and convictions • Containment and escort • Inside the ground • Stewards in stadium • Closed-circuit Television and hand-held cameras • Identity card and membership schemes