Intermediate 1 Physics

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Intermediate 1 Physics . Electronics. Input, Process and Output. Digital Logic Gates. Intermediate 1 Physics . Electronics. Input, Process and Output. Input, Process and Output. Electronic Systems

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### Intermediate 1 Physics

Electronics

• Input, Process and Output
• Digital Logic Gates

Beath High School - Int 1 Physics

### Intermediate 1 Physics

Electronics

Input, Process and Output

Beath High School - Int 1 Physics

Input, Process and Output

Electronic Systems

When something is made up of lots of parts which are put together to do a job, it is called a s _ _ _ _ _ .When the parts are electronic components the system is called an e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ system.

system.

electronic

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Electronic Systems

Electronic systems can do lots of jobs.The type of job will depend on the components used to make the s _ _ _ _ _ .A calculator is an example of an electronic system.Every electronic system has t _ _ _ _ main sections - called sub-systems.These are called the i _ _ _ _ , the p _ _ _ _ _ _ and the o_ _ _ _ _.

system.

three

input,

process

output.

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Subsystem - Input

What It Does

Detects some type of e _ _ _ _ _ .(for example: light, heat, sound) and changes it to e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ energy.This is then passed to the p _ _ _ _ _ _ subsystem

energy.

electrical

process

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Subsystem - Process

What It Does

Changes the electrical energy from the i _ _ _ _ so that the system can do its job. This is then passed on to the o _ _ _ _ _ subsystem.

input

output

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Subsystem - Output

What It Does

Converts the electrical e _ _ _ _ _ from theprocess subsystem into another type of energy which can be used. For example: h _ _ _ , l _ _ _ _ ,m _ _ _ _ _ _ _

energy

heat,

light,

movement.

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Block Diagrams

A block diagram is an easy way to draw a system. Instead of drawing a complicated diagram showing all the components, we draw a box or b _ _ _ _ to take the place of the i _ _ _ _ , p _ _ _ _ _ _ and o _ _ _ _ _ subsystems.Each block is labelled so that we k _ _ _ what it is.

block

output

input,

process

know

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Block Diagrams

The block diagram for a calculator is shown above. Any subsystem can be further broken down to smaller and smaller subsystems - down to the actual components if required.

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Block Diagram Examples

microphone

loudspeaker

amplifier

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Block Diagram Examples

Smoke Alarm

Output

Input

Process

buzzer

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Block Diagram Examples

Intruder Lamp

Heat

Sensor

lamp

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Input and Output Devices

energy

Input subsystems contain a device which changes some form of e _ _ _ _ _ into electrical energy.Output subsystems contain a device which changes e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e _ _ _ _ _ into some other form.

energy

electrical

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Input Devices

What it looks like:

Device: microphone

Circuit Symbol:

How it Works: The inside of the microphone

v_ _ _ _ _ _ _ exactly the same way as the sound waves. This makes identical electrical waves.

vibrates

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Input Devices

What it looks like:

Device: thermistor

Circuit Symbol:

How it Works: The resistance of the thermistor changes as the t_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ changes.

temperature

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Input Devices

What it looks like:

Device: Light Dependent Resistor

Circuit Symbol:

How it Works: The resistance of the LDR decreases as the light level gets b_ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

brighter.

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Input Devices

What it looks like:

Device: switch

Circuit Symbol:

How it Works: Moving the switch from one setting to the other makes or b_ _ _ _ _ the circuit.

breaks

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Output Devices

What it looks like:

Device: loudspeaker

Circuit Symbol:

How it Works: Electrical energy -> Sound energy

Electrical waves make vibrations inside the loudspeaker producing sound waves

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Output Devices

What it looks like:

Device: buzzer

Circuit Symbol:

How it Works: Electrical energy -> Sound energy

A voltage across the buzzer makes it sound. The buzzer just switches sound on or off.

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Output Devices

What it looks like:

Device: lamp

Circuit Symbol:

How it Works: Electrical energy -> Light energy

A voltage across the lamp makes it light. The greater the voltage, the brighter it gets.

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Output Devices

What it looks like:

Device: Light emitting diode

Circuit Symbol:

How it Works: Electrical energy -> Light energy

A voltage across the LED makes it light. LEDs are used to indicate when something is on or off.

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Output Devices

What it looks like:

Device: electric motor

Circuit Symbol:

How it Works: Electrical energy -> Kinetic energy A voltage across the motor makes it turn.

The greater the voltage, the faster it turns.

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Examples of input and output applications

Reason

Device

The output should be s _ _ _ _ _ waves

Loudspeaker

sound

Application

The LDR will change resistance when the brightness changes

Input of an automatic lamp

L _ _

LDR

The thermistor will

c_ _ _ _ _ resistance when the temperature changes

Input of a heating controller

Thermistor

change

turn

The motor will t_ _ _ the blades of the fan.

M _ _ _ _

Motor

Output of fan

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### Intermediate 1 Physics

Electronics

Digital Logic Gates

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Digital Signals

off

‘low’

Digital signals are either on or o _ _ .An ‘off’ signal has a zero voltage (called ‘l _ _’ ).An ‘on’ signal has a non-zero voltage(called ‘h _ _ _’ ).The ‘o _ _’ signal; low state is given the name ‘logic 0’ (most often just ‘0’).

The ‘o _’ signal; high state is given the name ‘logic 1’ (most often just ‘ 1’).

‘high’

‘off’

‘on’

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Digital Signals

1

High voltage: Logic _

An oscilloscope can show logic states since it measures the high and low voltages.

Oscilloscope trace showing a digital logicsignal which is changing from 1 to 0several times.

Low voltage: Logic _

0

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Logic Gates

Digital logic gates are used to combine or change digital electronic signals. There are three basic types of logic gate called the N _ _ gate (sometimes called an i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ), the A _ _ gate and the O _ gate.

NOT

inverter

AND

OR

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The NOT gate

This is the simplest gate. It has o _ _ input and o _ _ output.The output is always the opposite of the

i _ _ _ _ .

one

one

input.

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NOT gate (Inverter)

Symbol

Logic Gate

NOT Truth table

How it behaves

The NOT gate changes the input signal to the opposite state.

Input

Output

High

Low

(0)

(1)

High

Low

(0)

(1)

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The AND gate

The AND gate has two inputs and one output. The output of the AND gate is always at logic 0 unless both the inputs are at logic 1 when the output becomes logic 1 as well.

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AND gate

AND Truth table

Output

Input B

Input A

Symbol

Low

Low

Low

Logic Gate

(0)

(0)

(0)

High

Low

Low

(0)

(0)

(1)

How it behaves

Low

High

Low

The AND gate combines the input signals so that the output is only 1 when both inputs are 1.

(0)

(0)

(1)

High

High

High

(1)

(1)

(1)

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The OR gate

The OR gate has two inputs and one output. The output of the OR gate is always at logic 1 unless both the inputs are at logic 0 when the output becomes logic 0 as well.

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OR gate

OR Truth table

Output

Input B

Input A

Symbol

Low

Low

Low

Logic Gate

(0)

(0)

(0)

High

Low

High

(0)

(1)

(1)

How it behaves

Low

High

High

The OR gate combines the input signals so that the output is 1 when either input is 1.

(1)

(0)

(1)

High

High

High

(1)

(1)

(1)

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Logical solutions

1. Donnie's dad wants to be wakened if he gets up at night. Design a system to sound a buzzer if Donnie switches on his light or if he stands on a mat. (A switch is under the mat.)

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Buzzer

Light sensor

switch

Solution System Diagram

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Switch

Light Sensor

Open

Dark

Closed

Light

high

high

low

low

How it Works

high.

When the light is turned on, the light sensor output is h _ _ _ . This causes the OR gate output to go high which sounds the b _ _ _ _ _ .

buzzer.

When the switch under the mat is pressed, it c _ _ _ _ _ _ . This makes its output h _ _ _ .This causes the OR gate output to go h _ _ _ which sounds the buzzer.

closes.

high.

high

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2. A tomato grower wants to protect his delicate plants which are in his greenhouse. Design a warning system to sound a buzzer if it gets too cold during the night (dark).

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Buzzer

Light sensor

Temperature sensor

Solution System Diagram

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Light Sensor

Temperature Sensor

Cold

Dark

Warm

Light

high

high

low

low

How it Works

high.

The buzzer can only switch on when the output from the NOT gate is h _ _ _ .Therefore the output from the OR gate must be l _ _ .

low.

The OR gate output can only be low if b _ _ _ the inputs are low.

This means it must be both d _ _ _ and c _ _ _ as well..

both

dark

cold

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Grandad can't use the stair light switch easily since he got his walking stick.

Design a system which will switch on the stair light automatically when it gets dark.

There must be a manual switch as well.

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Lamp

Light sensor

switch

Solution System Diagram

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Light Sensor

Switch

Dark

Open

Light

Closed

high

high

low

low

How it Works

high

When it is dark, the light sensor output is low which is changed to h _ _ _ by the NOT gate. This causes the OR gate output to go high which l _ _ _ _ _ the lamp.

lights

When the switch is closed, its output is high. This causes the OR gate output to go h _ _ _ which lights the lamp..

high

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4. Design a system for a bathroom to switch on a fan motor when the bathroom gets so steamy, the light from the window is blocked. The fan must only come on when it is hot as well as steamy.

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Motor

Light sensor

Temperature sensor

Solution System Diagram

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Light Sensor

Temperature sensor

Cold

Dark

Warm

Light

high

high

low

low

How it Works

low

NOT

When it is steamy, it gets darker, the light sensor output is l _ _ which is changed to high by the N _ _ gate.When it gets too h _ _ the output from the temperature sensor is h _ _ _ .

hot

high.

Only when it is hot and steamy at the s _ _ _ time will both inputs of the AND gate be high to make the output high to t _ _ _ the motor..

same

turn

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### Intermediate 1 Physics

Electronics

End of Unit

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