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  1. APA Style: In-text documentation and References Center for Academic Excellence

  2. Table of Contents • In-text Documentation / Definition • Three Types of Quotation • Common Knowledge • In-text Documentation / Method • Signal Phrases • Author-Date / Parenthetic Documentation • References / Introduction • Format for Books • Format for Periodicals • Format for Online Newspaper Articles • Format for Online Periodical Articles • Interviews, E-Mails, and Other Personal Communications • Sample References Page • Conclusion

  3. IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION: Very basically, in-text documentation is acknowledgement, within the body of your essay, of the sources you are citing. In our sue-happy age, it is very important to avoid plagiarism, and so the American Psychological Association has formulated a system for acknowledging each of its sources, both within the text and in the References section at the end of the essay. Return to Table of Contents

  4. THREE TYPES OF QUOTATION: • Many writers are unaware that quotations are of three types— • Direct quotations (word-for-word) • Paraphrased quotations (in your own words) • Summarized quotations (briefly restated) • Any material that is not directly drawn from your own mind , and which is not in the realm of common knowledge, must be acknowledged. Return to Table of Contents

  5. COMMON KNOWLEDGE: What constitutes common knowledge? Anything that you could reasonably expect to find in five or more sources. Return to Table of Contents

  6. IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION: In APA format, in-text documentation begins with a signal phrase plus date and concludes with a parenthesis . The basic pattern, then, is threefold: Signal PhraseQuotationParenthesis Indeed, Parsons (1997) has shown that feral children have little to no aptitude for language (p. 62). Return to Table of Contents

  7. SIGNAL PHRASES: • A signal phrase introduces a quotation (whether direct or otherwise). • The following are sample signal phrases: • According to Bettelheim (1976) . . . • In the words of Bruno Bettelheim (1976) . . . • Doctor Bettelheim (1976) suggests . . . • Bettelheim (1976) has stated . . . • In his book On the Uses of Enchantment, Bettelheim (1976) • concludes that . . . Return to Table of Contents

  8. AUTHOR-DATE / PARENTHETIC DOCUMENTATION: • When using APA format, follow the author-date/parenthesis form of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text: • According to Bettelheim (1976), Jewish children did not respond well to the fairytale “Hansel and Gretel” after the Second World War (p. 83). Bettelheim (1976) pointed out that Jewish children did not respond well to the fairytale “Hansel and Gretel” after the Second World War (p. 83), which resulted in its being dropped from the curriculum. Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, e.g. Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found . . . Return to Table of Contents

  9. REFERENCES: In APA style, the bibliography includes all of the sources referred to within the text and is labeled “References.” The References are organized alphabetically by author’s last name. One peculiarity of the reference system is that titles are not generally capitalized . Please note that the titles of academic journals are both capitalized and italicized. Examples of various reference types follow. Return to Table of Contents

  10. FORMAT FOR BOOKS • Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher. • Williams, A. (2010). 52 loaves: One man’s relentless pursuit of truth, meaning, and a perfect crust. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin. • Note: For the location, always include the city and the state. Use the postal abbreviation for the state (no periods), as in Fort Wayne, IN. Return to Table of Contents

  11. FORMAT FOR PERIODICALS • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. • Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physio-logical Psychology, 55, 893-896. Return to Table of Contents

  12. FORMAT FOR ONLINE NEWSPAPER ARTICLES • Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress. com/full/url/ • Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes.com Return to Table of Contents

  13. FORMAT FOR ONLINE PERIODICAL ARTICLES • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.some-address.com/full/url/ • Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving Return to Table of Contents

  14. INTERVIEWS, E-MAIL, AND OTHER PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication in your main text only. (A.A. Author, personal communication, January 4, 2001). B.J. Le Clair indicated that psychological counseling can be extremely trying for the counselor and may lead to severe depression (personal communication, November 3, 2002). Return to Table of Contents

  15. EN RECHERCHE DU TEMPS PASSÉ 165 References Aarne, A. (1981). The Types of the Folktale: A Classification and Bibliography. (S. Thompson, Trans.). Helsinki: Academia ScientiarumFennica. Barchilon, J. (1975). Le conte merveilleux français de 1690 à 1790. Paris: Honoré Champion. Barchilon, J., & and Flinders, P. (1981). Charles Perrault. Boston: Twayne-Hall.

  16. Although this PowerPoint presentation is by no means a comprehensive introduction to the APA system of citation, it will provide you with a general sense of what is expected. For more detailed information, refer to your text book, to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, and to the numerous on-line resources, among which Purdue’s On-Line Writing Lab (OWL) is among the simplest to navigate—and perhaps the most useful. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Return to Table of Contents

  17. The End PowerPoint Presentation by Mark A. Spalding, BA, MEd, MA (2010).