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Chemolithotrophic proteobacteria S and Iron oxidizing. (SCIENCE 284: 16 April 1999) Thiomargarita namibiensis Beggiatoa (Winogradsky column) Thiothrix/Thioplaca Thiobacillus endosymbionts of deep-sea vent invertebrates. Nitrifiers. Nitrosonomas and Nitrobacter

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chemolithotrophic proteobacteria s and iron oxidizing
Chemolithotrophic proteobacteriaS and Iron oxidizing
  • (SCIENCE 284: 16 April 1999) Thiomargarita namibiensis
  • Beggiatoa (Winogradsky column)
  • Thiothrix/Thioplaca
  • Thiobacillus
  • endosymbionts of deep-sea vent invertebrates
nitrifiers
Nitrifiers
  • Nitrosonomas and Nitrobacter
  • Winogradsky
hydrogen oxidizers
Hydrogen oxidizers
  • Alcaligenes ”Knallgas reaction“
  • 2 H2 + O2 ---- 2 H2O
methanotrophs and methylotrophs
Methanotrophs and Methylotrophs
  • Not all methylotrophs are methanotrophs
  • Use methanol, methylamine, formate and (methane)
  • Type 1 (ribulose monophosphate pathway) and II (serine pathway), membranes differ too
    • Type 1 membranes are throughout cell
    • Type II on periphery of cell
  • Endosymbionts in deep-sea vent mussels
photosynthetic proteobacteria
Photosynthetic proteobacteria
  • Purple phototrophic proteobacteria (bacteriochlorophylls and photophosphorylation)
  • Purple sulfur, eg. Chromatium
  • Below is Chromatium tempedium from Yellowstone, that grows above 50C. Notice the phase-bright sulfur granules
slide10
Purple non-sulfur (photoheterotrophs)
  • (other groups in the Bacteria that photosynthesize?, green sulfur, green filamentous, cyanobacteria)
spirilla
Spirilla:
  • Spirillum _some magnetotactic e.g. Magnetospirillum
  • Bdellovibrio, attack gram – bacteria, see developmental cycle
sulfate sulfur reducers
Sulfate/sulfur reducers
  • Desulfurovibrio, Desulfuromonoas, anoxic habitats, compete with methanogens
  • use, H2, lactate as e'donors and sulfate or sulfur as e'acceptor. What is the product?
budding and stalked
Budding and stalked
  • Hyphomicrobium (methylotroph), budding
  • Caulobacter, stalked, see cycle
sheathed proteobacteria
Sheathed Proteobacteria:
  • e.g Leptothrix
  • Mn 2+ + 0.5 O2 + H2O --- Mn O2 + 2H+ delta G –68kJ
fermentative rods and vibrios 1 enterics gamma
Fermentative rods and vibrios 1.Enterics (gamma)
  • Gram -, nonsporulating, facultative aerobes, fermentative, opportunistic pathogens
  • 2 types: mixed acid fermenters (produce acid) E. coli

OR 2,3-butanediol fermenters (produce neutral products) Enterobacter aerogenes/Erwinia

Escherichia

Salmonella typhi- typhoid fever

Serratia marcescens (Bright red pigment- prodigiosin)

Xenorhabdus (bioluminescence)

Klebsiella pneumoniae (not normally pathogenic)

vibrio photobacterium
Vibrio, Photobacterium
  • V. cholerae
  • Photobacterium
    • O2 required for luciferase activity
    • Quorum sensing
    • FMNH2 + O2 +RCHO ---- FMN +RCOOH + H2O + hv
    • Need flavin mononucleotide, aliphatic aldehyde, O2, and enzyme. E- donor is NADH
oxidative rods and cocci
Oxidative rods and cocci
  • Pseudomonads (human pathogens, biodegraders, plant pathogens)
  • Azotobacter and free-living N-fixers
  • Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium: symbiotic N-fixers
  • Agrobacterium, crown gall
  • Acetobacter and Gluconobacter
  • Legionella,
  • Neisseria
  • Rickettsia obligate parasite, Rocky mountain spotted fever