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Chemistry Mid-term Review. Ch. 10, 11,13,14, and 15. Material You Should Review. From Last Year! Sig figs Types of Mixtures Exothermic vs. Endothermic Theories of the Structure of the Atom Emission Spectrum Orbitals Trends of the Periodic Table Valence electrons

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chemistry mid term review

Chemistry Mid-term Review

Ch. 10, 11,13,14, and 15

material you should review
Material You Should Review

From Last Year!

  • Sig figs
  • Types of Mixtures
  • Exothermic vs. Endothermic
  • Theories of the Structure of the Atom
  • Emission Spectrum
  • Orbitals
  • Trends of the Periodic Table
  • Valence electrons
  • Ionic vs. Covalent Compounds
  • Compound Naming rules
  • Percent composition of a compound
  • Molecular Formulas vs. Structural Formulas
  • Molecular Structures
  • Moles/Molecules
  • Electronegativity
  • All vocabulary words!!!
material you should review1
Material You Should Review

From This Year!

  • Solubility/Properties of Solutions
  • Types of Solutions
  • Gas Laws/ Vapor Pressure
  • What are Acids/Bases/Conjugate Acids/Bases
  • Calculate pH and pOH/calculate [H+] and [OH-]
  • Titrations
  • Kinetic Energy
  • Phases change vocabulary
  • Kelvin scale
  • Molarity
  • Reading Phase Diagrams
  • Acid-Base Reactions
  • All Vocabulary words!!!
ch 10 kinetic energy
CH. 10- Kinetic Energy
  • What is the Kinetic Theory of Matter?
    • Matter is made of particles
    • Particles have Brownian motion (constant, rapid, and random movement)
    • Collisions of particles are perfectly elastic (complete transfer of energy)
  • What is the difference between a crystalline and amorphous solid?

Crystalline solids have a crystal lattice with repeating 3D patterns.

Amorphous have no lattice and random order

  • What is atmospheric pressure?

Pressure of gas molecules all objects in the Earth’s atmosphere experience. 1 atm = 760mmHg= 14.7 psi= 101.3 kPa

ch 10 kinetic energy1
CH. 10- Kinetic Energy
  • Why do we use Kelvin when dealing with gases?

Kelvin directly relates the motion of the particles which produces the pressure of the gas.

  • What is vapor pressure? How does it relate to the boiling point of a liquid?

Pressure produced by a vapor as a liquid changes to a gas. When vapor pressure and atmospheric pressure are equal, a liquid will boil.

  • What is the heat of fusion? What is the heat of vaporization?

Heat of fusion- amount of every needed to melt 1kg of substance

Heat of evaporation- amount of energy needed to vaporize 1kg of substance

ch 10 kinetic energy2
CH. 10- Kinetic Energy
  • Label this diagram:

Boiling Point







Melting point


ch 11 gas laws
Ch. 11- Gas Laws
  • Explain:
  • Boyle’s Law:
  • Charles’ Law:
  • Gay-Lussacs’ Law:
  • Combined Gas Law:
  • Ideal Gas Law:
  • Avogadro’s Gas Principle:
  • Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures:

V1P1=V2P2; Volume and Pressure are inversely proportionate

V1/T1=V2/T2; Volume and Temperature are directly proportionate

P1/T1=P2/T2; Pressure and Temperature are directly proportionate

V1P1/T1= V2P2/T2

PV=nRT; connection between molar concentration of an ideal gas and its V, P, and T.

V1/n1=V2/n2; Moles of gas and the volume of the gas are directly proportionate

Ptotal=P1+P2+P3+…; total pressure is equal to sum of all none reactive gases

ch 11 gas laws1
CH. 11- Gas Laws

V2 = V1T2/T1= (10.0L x 423K)/298K = 14.2L

V2 = P1V1/P2 = (0.66atm x 3.0L)/5.0 atm = 0.40 L

P2=P1T2/T1=(475.0 mmHg x 358K)/312K =546 mmHg

ch 11 gas laws2
Ch. 11- Gas Laws

V2= P1V1T2/P2T1= (1.77 atm x 2.00L x 324K)/(4.01 atm x 303K)

V2= 0.944L

n=(75 atm)(14.0L)/(0.08206 L atm/ mol K)(295K)

n= 43 mol of NO2

ch 13 water and solutions
Ch. 13- Water and Solutions

At 4oC the water molecules are their most dense but as the temperature lowers the H-bonds form hexagonal shapes which forces water to expand as it freezes. This results in ice be less dense than water.

  • What happens to water at 4oC and at temps lower than 4oC?
  • Name 3 properties caused by H-bonds formed between water molecules
  • What are the 3 types of solutions that can be produced with increasing solute concentration and solvent temperature?

Adhesion- water molecules sticking to surfaces

Cohesion- water molecules sticking to each other

Capillary action- water moving up tubes against gravity

Surface tension- water molecule resistant force on its surface

High specific heat- water can absorb a lot of energy and releases it slowly

Unsaturated- still able to dissolve solute in the solvent

Saturated- maximum amount of solute within the solvent

Supersaturated- raising the temperature allows for extra amounts of solute to dissolve in the solvent; crystalizes when cooled

ch 13 water and solutions1
Ch. 13- Water and Solutions

M= 0.6784 molNaCl/ 4.5 L H2O

M= 0.15 mol/L = 0.15 M

977.6 mL H2O

1 L H2O

3 molKBr

119.0 g KBr

= 349 g KBr


1000 mL H2O

1 L H2O

ch 13 water and solutions2
Ch. 13- Water and Solutions
  • What is the difference between a solution, a colloid, and a suspension?
  • What is the Tyndall effect?
  • How can looking at the structure of a solute and solvent tell you if they will dissolve into each other?

Solution- solute completely dissolved; light pass through

Colloid- solute completely dissolved; light scatters

Suspension- solute separates over time; often reflects light

Light photons passing through a colloid collide with particles in the solution and scatter in random directions causing the colloid to glow

Using the “Like dissolves Like” rule, a non-polar molecules dissolve into non-polar substances and polar molecules dissolve into polar substances

ch 13 water and solutions3
Ch. 13- Water and Solutions
  • Explain how solutes effect the boiling and freezing points of a solution
  • What is an electrolyte?

Solutes dissolved in the solvent take up space between the solvent molecules. When the solution is boiling, the solute particles take up space on the surface of the solution which lowers the vapor pressure, so more energy (higher temp) is needed to boil the solution. When freezing the solutes take up space between the solvent molecules and prevent them from moving close together, so more energy (lower temp) must be removed to freeze the solution

A solution containing dissolved ions which will allow the passing of electrons through the medium. The more ions present the easier it is for the electricity to pass through the solution.

ch 14 acids and bases
Ch. 14- Acids and Bases
  • What is ionization?
  • How can you tell is a substance is an acid or base?
  • SO3 and ZnO produce either an acid or a base when mixed with water. Which does each produce? What is the term for compounds that do this?

Breaking a covalent compound into ions. Happens with acids dissociating in solution

Acids produce hydronium ions (H+) in water while bases produce hydroxide ions (OH-) in water.

B-L definition Acids give off H+ while bases take H+

SO3 (non-metal oxide) when mixed with water produces an acid (H2SO4) so it is an acidic anhydride

ZnO (metal oxide) when mixed with water produces a base (ZnOH) so it is a basic anhydride

ch 14 acids and bases1
Ch. 14- Acids and Bases
  • What is the difference between a strong and weak acid/base?
  • What is the equation for calculating pH? pOH?
  • How do scientists monitor the change in pH when doing reactions?

Strong acids/bases dissociate completely in solution but weak acids/bases only dissociate a little

pH= -log[H+]

pOH= -log[OH-]

pH + pOH = 14

pH indicators are used to monitor pH changes Litmus paper can tell you if you have an acid or a base and liquid indicators that work in certain pH ranges will tell more specifically what your pH might be.

ch 14 acids and bases2
Ch. 14- Acids and Bases
  • What is the [OH-] of a solution whose pOH = 10 ?
  • What is the pH of a solution whose [H+] is 1.0x 10-4 M?
  • What is the [OH-] of a solution whose pH = 5 ?
  • What is the pH of a 0.0001-M solution of NaOH?

[OH-] = 10-10 = 1.0x10-10 M

pH = -log[1.0 x10-4] = 4

pOH= 14- 5= 9; [OH-] = 10-9= 1.0x 10-9 M

0.0001 M NaOH = 0.0001 [OH-]

pOH= -log [0.0001] = 4

pH= 14-4 = 10

ch 15 acid base reactions
Ch. 15 Acid-Base Reactions
  • What are the reactants and products of a neutralization reaction?
  • What is the net iconic equation of reacting KOH and HCl?
  • What acid-base reaction end with a slightly basic solution? Why?

Acid + Base A Salt + H2O

HCl + NaOHNaCl + H2O

KOH + HCl KCl + H2O

OH- + H+ H2O

Strong Base+ Weak Acid

Weak aciddoesn’t dissociated enough to neutralize all the OH -ions produced by the base

ch 15 acid base reactions1
Ch. 15 Acid-Base Reactions
  • Label the acid, base, and conjugate acid/base in these reactions:



  • What is a buffer? How does it work?

Conjugate Acid


Conjugate Base




Conjugate Acid

Conjugate Base

A solution of a weak acid or base and the salt of that same weak acid or base. Solution has compounds that will react with additional H+ and OH- ions so the pH of the solution changes slowly over time

ch 15 acid base reactions2
Ch. 15 Acid-Base Reactions

An acid‐base titration requires 29.88 mL of 1.17MNaOH to 

neutralize5.00 mL of an H2SO4 solution.  Calculate the molarity of theH2SO4 solution.

2 NaOH (aq) + H2SO4 (aq) Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (l)


MA= (29.88ml)(1.17M)/(2)(5.00ml)= 3.50 M H2SO4

A 20.00‐mL sample of oxalic acid, H2C2O4, solution is titrated with 

27.86 mL of 0.250 M KOH solution.  Calculate the molarity of the 

H2C2O4 solution.

2 KOH (aq) + H2C2O4 (aq) K2C2O4 (aq) + 2 H2O (l)


MA= (27.86ml)(0.250M)/(2)(20.00ml)= 0.174 M H2C2O4