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Welcome Marcella Leonard PPANI Coordinator Gareth Mc Gibbon PBNI. Legislative Structure of PPANI Criminal Justice (NI) Order 2008 Secretary of State’s Guidance Manual of Practice. Strategic and Practice Structures of PPANI. Strategic Management Board PPANI Coordination Unit

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Welcome

Marcella Leonard PPANI Coordinator

Gareth Mc Gibbon PBNI

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide2

Legislative Structure of PPANI

Criminal Justice (NI) Order 2008

Secretary of State’s Guidance

Manual of Practice

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide3

Strategic and Practice Structures of PPANI

  • Strategic Management Board
  • PPANI Coordination Unit
  • PPANI Links Team
  • LAPPP (Local Area Public Protection Panel)
  • LAPPP Chair
  • Designated Risk Manager (DRM)

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide4

PPANI Processes

Offender convicted of relevant PPANI offence

PPANI Links allocate offender to nearest LAPPP meeting

LAPPP Meeting held and category of risk management agreed

And DRM appointed

Offender reviewed every 16 weeks at LAPPP meeting until

Category one status

DRM visits offender and completes assessments for each LAPPP

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide5

PPANI Category of Risk Management

Category 1

“Someone whose previous offending and / or current

behaviour and / or current circumstances present little

evidence that they could cause serious harm through carrying out

a contact sexual or violent offence”

Category 2

“Someone whose previous offending,

And / or current behaviour

and / or current circumstances present

clear and identifiable evidence that they

could cause serious harm through carrying

out a contact sexual or violent offence

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide6

PPANI Category of Risk Management

Category 3

“Someone whose previous offending,

current behaviour

And / or current circumstances present clear and identifiable

evidence that they

are highly likely to cause serious harm through

carrying out a contact sexual or violent offence.”

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide7

Current Statistics of persons subject to PPANI

Total Prison Community

Category 3 18 11 7

Category 2 162 71 91

As of September 2013

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide8

What is ‘ child pornography’ ?

‘any representation, by whatever means, of a child engaged

in real or simulated explicit sexual activities or any

representation of the sexual parts of a child, the dominant

characteristic of which is depiction for a sexual purpose’

The Convention on the Rights of the Child 2002

In N.Ireland we refer to abusive images of children

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide9

PPANI and Internet Offending

  • PPANI came into existence 2008 therefore some
  • offenders through internet will not be known to PPANI
  • Currently 80 persons known to PPANI for Possession of Indecent
  • Images of Children
  • 3 of these are assessed as requiring Category 3 Level of Risk
  • Management
  • 9 currently awaiting assessment, 3 pending
  • 65 assessed at Category 1 level of risk management

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide10

Patterns emerging indicating that where a child is sexually

  • Abused in settings such as home or on street, image making
  • Of their abuse is frequently involved.
  • These images can then be used:
  • inhibit and silence the child
  • traded
  • increases control of the abuser
  • increases likelihood of further types of abuses ECPAT 2005
  • The use of pornography as a sex education tool

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide11

Types of on line violence against children and

  • young people:
  • The production, distribution and use of materials depicting
  • child sexual abuse
  • Online grooming or solicitation
  • Exposure to materials that can cause psychological harm,
  • lead to physical harm or facilitate other detriment to a child
  • Harassment and intimidation, including bullying

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide12

Emerging trends in the technologies impacting

  • on internet abuse:
  • Phones and 3G – the convergence of internet and mobile phones
  • Video / camera apps on mobile phones
  • Online games
  • peer to peer exchanges
  • instant messaging
  • internet cafes / public places

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide13

The impact of these emerging technology developments:

  • demand for sexual activity against children – latency
  • - normalcy
  • - profit
  • cyberspace is influential – boundaries of people’s behaviour
  • online v real world
  • opportunities to harm – vast number of venues and accessibility
  • online v real world
  • the use of pornography -as primary tool
  • - impact of exposure
  • - socialisation

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide14

Distinctive qualities affecting behaviour and interactions in cyberspace:

  • Proximity
  • Access Scope
  • Permanence Velocity
  • Reinforcement Identity
  • Reality Scale

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide15

Typologies

Situational offender - curious adult realising an opportunity to access pornography

Preferential offender - indiscriminate with deviant sexual attitudes, typically a paedophile with definite interest in children

Miscellaneous offender - private investigations, media reporters, adolescent males etc

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide16

Links to contact offending

  • Seto et al 2011 Meta Analysis:
  • 21 online offenders
  • 1 in 8 had history of contact sexual offence
  • 50 % admitted contact sexual offence
  • Putsey Report:
  • 47.8% - 84.5% treatment group had no contact offences there
  • fore 50% upwards admitted contact offence
  • Bourke and Hernandez (2009) : 84.5% admitted contact offences
  • Neatze et al (2009): 57.4% admitted contact offences
  • Quayle and Taylor (2003): 47.8% admitted contact offences
slide17

Links to contact offending

  • Seto et al 2011 Meta Analysis:
  • 21 online offenders
  • 1 in 8 had history of contact sexual offence
  • 50 % admitted contact sexual offence
  • Putsey Report:
  • 47.8% - 84.5% treatment group had no contact offences there
  • fore 50% upwards admitted contact offence
  • Bourke and Hernandez (2009) : 84.5% admitted contact offences
  • Neatze et al (2009): 57.4% admitted contact offences
  • Quayle and Taylor (2003): 47.8% admitted contact offences
slide18

Links to contact offending

Imitation -offenders replay what they have seen on the computer with a victim

Permission giving -offender is given courage by what they have seen and this escalates offending behaviour

Reinforcing existing feelings - encourages the individual to act on their feelings and this can happen quickly with the offender entering chat rooms to seek to meet victims

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide19

Links to contact offending

  • Level of conviction in England and Wales 2001-2007
  • All sexual offences 2001 (3,300) - 2007 (5,000)
  • Internet 2001 (364) - 2007 (967)
  • USA Overall convictions child abuse in 2007:
  • 47% all other child abuse
  • 53% internet viewing indecent images

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide20

Links to contact offending

  • Seto et al 2011 Meta Analysis:
  • 21 online offenders
  • 1 in 8 had history of contact sexual offence
  • 50 % admitted contact sexual offence
  • Putsey Report:
  • 47.8% - 84.5% treatment group had no contact offences there
  • fore 50% upwards admitted contact offence
  • Bourke and Hernandez (2009) : 84.5% admitted contact offences
  • Neatze et al (2009): 57.4% admitted contact offences
  • Quayle and Taylor (2003): 47.8% admitted contact offences

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide21

PPANI Category of Risk Management and Child Protection

  • Risk management v risk to children
  • Engaged in monitoring and supervision
  • but
  • Sexual interest in children
  • grooming/targeting children

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

pbni response to internet sexual offending
PBNI Response to Internet Sexual Offending
  • The Internet Sexual Offending Treatment Programme (i-SOTP) is part of an overall suite of treatment programmes delivered by PBNI.
  • i-SOTP is designed for offenders in the community subject to statutory supervision by PBNI.
  • The programme caters for offences defined as the making, distribution and production of indecent images.
  • The programme is offered in two formats – group-work and one to one intervention.
  • Programme aims to reduce the likelihood of further internet related offending and lessen the likelihood of contact sexual offending/recidivism.

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

why a specific programme
Why a specific programme?
  • 2004-5 analysis of UK caseload suggested approximately 30% of offenders were convicted of internet related sexual offending.
  • Analysis of psychometrics of contact and internet offenders reveal many shared characteristics
  • Agreed need for an intervention informed by an internet specific focus as well as a focus on general sexual offending risk factors.

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

assessing risk
Assessing Risk
  • The programme is designed for men who are assessed as low/medium risk and low deviance.
  • Higher risk/deviance offenders will be more suited to existing longer term programmes as such assessments are indicative of a predisposition to commit contact sexual offences.
  • RM2K can be used subject to a number of caveats.
  • Deviance is assessed using standard battery of accredited psychometrics.

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

eligibility
Eligibility
  • Males over 21 years (group-work)
  • 17 years and over (1-1)
  • High score on Psychopathy Check List – Revised (PCL-R)
  • IQ < 80
  • Poor literacy
  • Stable mental health
  • Acute substance misuse
  • Programme ready (absolute denial)
  • Strong command of the English language.

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

programme content and process
Programme Content and Process

The i-SOTP consists of;

  • A pre-programme meeting
  • Completion of pre-treatment programme psychometrics
  • Six modules consisting of 35 x 2 hours group work or 20/30 sessions x 1.5 hours individual work
  • Completion of post programme psychometrics
  • Post programme planning meeting.

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

diagrammatic representation of model of change beech fisher 1998
Diagrammatic Representation of Model of Change [Beech & Fisher 1998]

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

the internet behaviour and attitudes questionnaire ibaq
The Internet Behaviour and Attitudes Questionnaire (IBAQ)
  • 137 convicted internet offenders completed the 90 item attitude and behaviour questionnaire.
  • Strong identification of problematic internet use for a self-efficacy and distorted attitudes cluster.
  • IBAQ produced an assessment of ‘low behaviour’ group associated with 4.5 hours per week internet use and ‘high behaviour’ group associated with 10 hours use per week.
  • Higher behaviour offenders tended to be involved in accessing images using less common technologies, engaging in trade of images, more habitual behaviours relating to viewing, categorisation and masturbation.

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

schematic representation of pathways model of child sexual abuse ward siegart 2002
Schematic Representation of Pathways Model of Child Sexual Abuse (Ward & Siegart, 2002)

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

slide32

Risk Matrix 2000

High / Medium / Low)

Very High

Psychometric (Deviance) Assessment

Refer to one of the existing accredited sex offender programmes

Low Deviance

High Deviance

Refer to i-SOTP

Core programme plus discretionary exercises on relationships and self management.

Psychometrics suggest multiple dysfunctional pathway

Core programme plus discretionary exercises on relationships and self management

Psychometrics suggest intimacy deficits pathway

Core programme plus discretionary exercises on victim awareness, relationships and self management

Psychometrics suggest emotional dysregulation pathway

Distorted sexual script pathway

Core programme plus discretionary exercises on victim awareness, relationships and self management

Anti-social cognitions pathway

Psychometrics suggest no clear pathway

Review treatment needs after completion of functional analysis and module 2 of i-SOTP

i sotp model of change
i-SOTP Model of Change
  • Increase motivation, decrease denial and identify and reduce discrepancy between perceived pro-social values and behaviour (addressing distorted attitudes)
  • Challenge offence supportive attitudes and behaviours (addressing distorted attitudes)
  • Build an empathic response to identifying that children depicted in the indecent images are real victims of child abuse; (addressing distorted attitudes and socio-affective functioning )
  • Reduce use of sex as a coping strategy and emotional avoidance, replacing it with effective problem solving strategies (addressing socio-affective functioning and self management)
  • Develop adequate relationship, intimacy and coping skills; improve self esteem and internal locus of control; (Social Adequacy factors and self-management)
  • Develop realistic relapse prevention strategies and new pro-social lifestyle goals (addressing self-management and socio-affective functioning)

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

treatment targets
Treatment Targets
  • Module 1: - Promoting motivation and forming a therapeutic alliance
  • Module 2: - ‘What needs did offending meet’
  • Module 3: - ‘Victim Awareness and Taking Responsibility’
  • Module 4: - ‘Emotional Self regulation and Relationship skills’
  • Module 5: - ‘Community, Collecting and Compulsivity’
  • Module 6: - ‘ Relapse Prevention and New Life Goals’

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

assessing change
Assessing Change
  • All sex offender treatment programmes are studied with respect to their clinical impact.
  • Changes in scores on psychometric tests and interviews are examined for every offender.
  • The IBAQ will continue to be developed for use as a risk assessment measure specific to this offender group.
  • Psychometric change will be assessed by taking pre and post treatment measures on scales related to the programme’s goals.
  • NPD has an existing programme of evaluation for all SOTP programmes with relevant comparison data.
  • Full information is maintained on all offenders undergoing the programme and longitudinal follow up report of effect on recidivism will be prepared.

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

questions
Questions?

PPANI - Internet Offending 2013