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ADETTI / ISCTE - Lisboa Avenida das Forças Armadas 1649-026 LISBOA PORTUGAL. Apparent consumption of salted dry codfish is stabilized. K.Ton. K.Ton. Price US$/Ton (lwe). Quantities Ton (lwe). SALMAR - Margins Along the European Seafood Value Chain (European Project QLK5-CT1999-01346).

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ADETTI / ISCTE - Lisboa

Avenida das Forças Armadas

1649-026 LISBOA PORTUGAL

Apparent consumption

of salted dry codfish is stabilized

K.Ton

K.Ton

Price US$/Ton (lwe)

Quantities Ton (lwe)

SALMAR - Margins Along the European Seafood Value Chain (European Project QLK5-CT1999-01346)

The Portuguese Codfish Industry - A Survey

João Ferreira Dias, Rui Menezes, Fernanda Guia, José Cruz Filipe, Vivelinda Guerreiro

The Importance of the Portuguese Codfish Industry

  • Documented since the XVI Century
  • Codfish represents 40% of the national per capita fish consumption (which is close to 60 Kg (lwe)/yr/person)
  • Total annual apparent consumption stabilized around 70 K.ton
  • Second world’s largest importer of frozen codfish and the third exporter
  • World’s largest importer of green salted codfish
  • Second world’s largest importer of dried and salted codfish

Catches by the Portuguese fleet collapsed

Imports supply the processing industry and the market

The Survey

  • Sample:
    • 36% of the cod processors and 40% of the production
    • All firms dry and salt codfish; 2 of them produce frozen soaked salted codfish as well
    • 9 companies act also as wholesalers; 2 owns fishing boats
  • Identification of Sector Competitive Advantages:
    • Economies of scale
    • Special relationship with their customers;
    • Production efficiency (domestic competitors)
    • Manpower costs (international competitors)
    • Marketing, brands and quality are also referred as important
  • Issues:
    • Problems with quality assurance of supplies
    • Concern about direct imports by the hyper-market chains
    • Lack of EU standard legislation, defining the main state parameters
  • Cost structure (dried salted processing)
    • Rawmaterials: 88,9 %
    • Manpower: 4,6 %
    • Energy: 1,6 %
    • Other costs: 4,9 %
  • SurveyFindings
    • The vertical integration is now limited (until 1974 the fleet owners where also the processors)
    • Several firms express the interest in a cooperative purchasing
    • The relationship with customers is the main source of competitive advantages
    • Traditional wholesalers are yet the main sales channel
    • The larger producers sell an increasing share to hyper-markets
    • Exports are made on a point basis, by agents and other
    • Inventories increased a lot from 1998 to 1999

Conclusions

  • Domestic catches were reduced by 70% in ton (lwe) and 40% in current PTE between 1988 and 1999
  • Apparent consumption has stabilized at approx. 70,000 ton (in salted dry weight)
  • Industrial production has decreased by a small amount
  • Hyper-markets represent an important sales channel
  • Exports oscillate without a clear pattern
  • Imports (lwe) increased by 10% during the period from 1988 to 1999 with a steady seasonality profile
  • Imports average price increased during the period 1997-1999, with almost identical average prices (in $US / Kg lwe) for the different states, giving the indication of an integrate and transparent world market
  • Frozen codfish has increase its share in supplies

XIII EAFE CONFERENCE Salerno 18-20 April 2001