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Ch. 14 Notes: Classification. By: Brianna Shields February 4, 2006. Taxonomy Binomial Nomenclature Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain. Biological Species Phylogeny Convergent Evolution Analogous Character Cladistics Ancestral Character Derived Character Cladogram

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ch 14 notes classification

Ch. 14 Notes: Classification

By: Brianna Shields

February 4, 2006

list the terms in your vocab notebook leaving about 3 4 spaces between each term
Taxonomy

Binomial Nomenclature

Genus

Family

Order

Class

Phylum

Kingdom

Domain

Biological Species

Phylogeny

Convergent Evolution

Analogous Character

Cladistics

Ancestral Character

Derived Character

Cladogram

Evolutionary Systematics

Phylogenetic Tree

List the terms in your vocab notebook, leaving about 3-4 spaces between each term
do now
DO NOW
  • The evolution of mutant strains of bacteria that are not affected by normal medicines is known as?
  • What
goals
GOALS
  • Describe Linnaeus’s role in developing the modern system of naming organisms
  • Summarize the scientific system for naming a species
  • List the seven levels of biological classification
  • List the characteristics that biologists use to classify organisms
  • Summarize the biological species concept
  • Relate the analogous structures to convergent evolution
  • Describe how biologists use cladograms to determine evolutionary histories
classification
Taxonomy

Science of naming and classifying organisms

Classification
classification1
Binomial Nomenclature

Latin naming system

Consists of two words

Developed by Carl Linnaeus

Known as the scientific name

Classification
classification2
Binomial Nomenclature

First Word

Genus (contains similar species)

First letter capitalized

Italicize or underline word

Second Word

Species (one kind of organism from a genus)

Most basic form of classification

Lowercase

Italicize or underline word

Classification
classification3
Binomial Nomenclature

Abbreviated form

G. species

Provides common scientific language because common names can differ across countries

Classification
classification4
Binomial Nomenclature

When naming new species

Name must be in latin

No two organisms can have same name

Many organisms can have same genus name, but not species name

Ex:

Homo sapien

Homo erectus

Classification
classification5
Binomial Nomenclature

Classifying organisms from general to specific

Domain (3: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya)

Kingdom (5)

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

Classification
classification of a honey bee
Classification of a Honey Bee
  • Kingdom: Metazoa((Animalia) multicellular animals)
  • Phylum:Arthropoda (arthropods)
  • Class: Insecta(true insects)
  • Order: Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps)
  • Family: Apidae (bumble bees, honey bees)
  • Genus:Apis
  • Species:Apis mellifera
  • Common Names: Honey Bee
classification6
Biological Species

Group of natural populations that can interbreed

Are reproductively isolated from other groups

Caused by a barrier between groups preventing them from breeding

When barriers are incomplete, hybrids may be created when two species breed and produce fertile offspring

Ex: Dog + Wolf gives rise to a dog-wolf hybrid

Classification
classification7
Earth’s Diversity

1.5 million described species

5-10 million undescribed species living in the tropics alone

Classification
classification8
Evolutionary History

Phylogeny- evolutionary history that should be reflected in an organism’s classification

Organisms should be classified by relatedness

Using physical similarities to accomplish this can be misleading

Ex: bird and insect wings- structures actually quite different, evolved separately

Classification
classification9
Convergent Evolution

Similarities evolve in organisms that are not closely related to one another (may live in similar habitats)

Analagous characters- similarities arising through convergent evolution

Classification
classification10
Cladistics

Reconstructs evolutionary histories (phylogenies) by inferring relationships based on shared characters

Attempts to sequence the order in which different organisms evolved

Classification
classification11
Ancestral Characters

Evolved in a common ancestor of both groups

Ex: backbone for birds and mammals

Classification
classification12
Derived Characters

Evolved in an ancestor of one group, but not the other

Ex: feathers- evolved in ancestor of bird, but not mammals

Organisms with shared derived characters are more closely related than those with shared ancestral characters

Classification
classification13
Cladogram

Branching diagram showing evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms

Organisms sharing derived characters are grouped together

Classification
classification14
Evolutionary Systematics

Looks at varying degrees of importance to characters

Evolutionary relationships displayed on a phylogenetic tree

Classification
assessment
Assessment
  • Complete p. 25 and 27 from the Ch. 14 Biology Resource Book to review the classification material. We will go over the correct answers when you are finished
  • QUIZ: Complete the Ch. 12-13 Quiz to review the concept of evolution. We will correct this in class.
  • REVIEW GUIDE: Use the remainder of the period to work on your review guide questions.
websites
WEBSITES
  • Website One