Statistics and Probability 13.1 Basic Statistics

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# Statistics and Probability 13.1 Basic Statistics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Essential Question: Why is a knowledge of basic statistics helpful in real-world situations?. Statistics and Probability 13.1 Basic Statistics. 13-1: Basic Statistics. Population: The set of all people who can be chosen Sample: The set of people from the population who were actually chosen

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Essential Question: Why is a knowledge of basic statistics helpful in real-world situations?

### Statistics and Probability13.1 Basic Statistics

13-1: Basic Statistics
• Population: The set of all people who can be chosen
• Sample: The set of people from the population who were actually chosen
• Example: Identify the population and the sample
• There are three schedule options for classes at a high school: 90-minute classes every other day for a year, 90-minute classes every day for a semester or 45-minute classes every day for a year. Out of 1200 students, 50 students from each grade level are chosen at random and asked their preference.
• Population:
• Sample:

1200 students

50 students • 4 grades = 200 students

13.1 Basic Statistics
• Types of Data
• Qualitative – categorical
• Quantitative – numerical
• Discrete – incremental
• Continuous – no minimum difference
• Example 1
• The height of each player on a basketball team
• The style of shoes worn by each student in a class
• The number of people in each household in the US

Quantitative - continuous

Qualitative

Quantitative - discrete

13.1 Basic Statistics
• Data Displays
• Frequency – number of times a value appears
• Relative frequency – frequency/total number of items
• Example 2/Example 3/Example 4
• 30 people were asked their favorite flavor of ice cream: 6 vanilla, 12 chocolate, 4 butter pecan, 8 mint chocolate chip.
• Display as a frequency table, bar graph, and pie chart
13.1 Basic Statistics
• Pie Chart
• Each relative frequency takes a portion of 360˚
• Vanilla: 0.2 ∙ 360˚ = 72˚
• Chocolate: 0.4 ∙ 360˚ = 144˚
• Butter pecan : 0.13 ∙ 360˚ ≈ 47˚
• Mint chocolate chip: 0.27 ∙ 360˚ ≈ 97˚

Vanilla

20%

Mint Chocolate Chip

27%

Butter Pecan

13%

Chocolate

40%

13.1 Basic Statistics
• Displaying Quantitative Data
• Curve types
• Uniform – all values have approximately same frequency
• Symmetric – right and left sides are mirror images
• Skewed right – right side lower than the left side
• Skewed left – left side lower than the right side
• Skewed means “screwed”
• Outlier – data far removed from the rest.
• Usually the culprit in skewed data
13.1 Basic Statistics
• Example 5 - The shape of data
• Choose the best determination of data (uniform, symmetric, skewed right, skewed left)
• The last digit of each number in the phone book
• The salaries of the employees of a corporation
• The age of retirement for all people in the US
• The height of all adult women in the US

Uniform

Skewed right

Skewed left

Symmetric

13.1 Basic Statistics
• Stem Plot
• Choose leading digit(s) as stems
• Arrange stems vertically
• Last digit is the leaf
• Provide a key
13.1 Basic Statistics
• 31 test scores on an exam
• 32, 67, 89, 90, 87, 72, 75, 88, 95, 83, 97, 72, 85, 93, 79, 63, 70, 87, 74, 86, 98, 100, 97, 85, 77, 88, 92, 94, 81, 76, 64

3|2 = 32

13.1: Basic Statistics
• Assignment
• Page 851
• Problems:
• 1 – 9 (all)
• 11, 15
• 19 – 24 (all)