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HIST 202 - HESEN. DIPLOMACY AND WORLD WAR II. Prelude to War. WWI was the “war to end all wars” Treaty Versailles Killed German economy Aided in the rise of Hitler U.S. stayed away and remained isolationists. Hoover’s Foreign Policy. No foreign commitments “Isolationism”

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DIPLOMACY AND WORLD WAR II


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    1. HIST 202 - HESEN DIPLOMACY AND WORLD WAR II

    2. Prelude to War • WWI was the “war to end all wars” • Treaty Versailles • Killed German economy • Aided in the rise of Hitler • U.S. stayed away and remained isolationists

    3. Hoover’s Foreign Policy • No foreign commitments • “Isolationism” • Great Depression was going on • The U.S. had its own problems to deal with!

    4. Japanese Aggression in Manchuria • Early 1930s • Japan posed greatest threat to world peace • Japanese invaded China in September 1931 • League of Nations did NOTHING • Showed the League was a failure at maintaining peace

    5. FDR and Foreign Policy • Concentration was on the home economy – New Deal • Believed in “Good Neighbor” policy • Recognized Soviet Union • Aligned with Latin American • Granted Philippines independence • Lowered tariffs 50%

    6. Events Abroad: Fascism and Militarism • Italy • Benito Mussolini (1922) • Il Duce – Black Shirts • Fascism – govt. is more important than people • Germany • Adolf Hitler (1933) • Nazi Party – radical fascism • Mein Kampf • Japan • Hideki Tojo

    7. American Isolationists • Americans were disillusioned from WWI • Nye Committee • Gerald Nye – Senator from ND • Reviewed records and policy from WWI • Determined that U.S. entered war to serve greedy bankers and industrialists

    8. Neutrality Acts • Congress adopted the Neutrality Acts (1935, 1936, 1937) • Spanish Civil War - Franco • Synopsis: U.S. would not sell weapons to belligerent or warring countries in Europe • America First Committee • Anti-war/Anti-conflict • 800,000 members

    9. Moving Towards War in Europe • 1935-1939 • Appeasement – let dictators do their thing – PACIFY THEM!!! • Ethiopia (1935) • Rhineland (1936) • China (1937) • Sudetenland (1938)

    10. Alliances • Allied Powers • Great Britain • France • Soviet Union • U.S. (eventually) • Axis Powers • Germany • Italy • Japan

    11. Neutrality to War, 1939-1941 • 1939 • Hitler invades Poland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia BLITZKRIEG – “LIGHTNING WAR” By 1940 – Britain is the only Allied Power left without German troops

    12. Changing U.S. Policy • “Cash and Carry” (1939) • British and French pay U.S. for arms • Carried arms away on their own ships • Kept U.S. “neutral” • Selective Service Act (1940) • Registration of all men 21-35 • Destroyers for Bases • Gave Brits older ships • U.S. may build bases on British controlled territories

    13. Election of 1940 FDR WILLKIE

    14. Arsenal of Democracy • Four Freedoms • Speech • Religion • Freedom from want • Freedom from fear • Lend-Lease Act • Brits and French are out of money • U.S. “lends” them weapons

    15. Arsenal of Democracy • Atlantic Charter • Agreement between U.S. and Brits • No territorial expansion • Free trade • Shoot on Sight • U.S. targeted German submarines

    16. Disputes With Japan • Japan joins the Axis powers in 1940 • FDR responds with an embargo on steel • Froze Japanese credit and U.S. oil sales to Japan • Japan calls it “an unfriendly act”

    17. Reminders • Remaining tests and papers on side table • Read Moody – assignment due on 4/24 • Final exam study group – 5/6 (normal times) • Final Exam – 5/13 and 5/15

    18. Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941 • Began at 0730 – lasted two hours • 2,400 American killed as a result • 1,200 wounded • 20 warships were lost • December 8, 1941 – U.S. declares war against Japan • U.S. gets involved in WWII

    19. War’s Impact • Propaganda • Office of War Information • Movies • Radio • Music • Newspapers • SACRFICE FOR YOUR COUNTRY!!!

    20. Industrial Production • War Production Board (1942) • Told companies what to produce • Huge output of metals, rubber, fuel • Paid companies for work PLUS % profits • By 1944 – Unemployment – 1%

    21. Industrial Production • Wages, prices, and rationing • Office of Price Administration (OPA) Controlled prices and wages • Rationing • Sugar • Meat • Fuel

    22. Industrial Production • Labor Unions • No strikes • Labor wages were frozen by OPA • Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (1943) • Govt can take over businesses threatened by strikes

    23. Industrial Production • Financing the War • Increased income tax • Sold war bonds • Supplemented increase in income taxes • $135 billion raised • Shortage of goods – helped Americans save $$$

    24. War’s Impact • African-Americans • 1.5 million left South for North • Race riots in 1943 • NAACP membership increased • CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) formed • “Double V” slogan • Victory overseas • Victory here for civil rights

    25. War’s Impact • Mexican Americans • Worked in the defense industry • 300,000 joined the military

    26. War’s Impact • Japanese Americans • 20,000 served in military • Issei v. Nisei • 1942 • Roosevelt orders Japanese Americans into internment • Executive Order 9066 • 100,000 interned • Korematsu v U.S.(1944)

    27. War’s Impact • Women • 200,000 served in the military • All noncombat roles • 5 million entered the workplace • “Rosie the Riveter” • Paid less wages than men

    28. World War II Battlefronts • Fighting Germany • Battle of the Atlantic (1942) • Objective: GET RID OF U-BOATS!!! • U.S. and Brits lost 500 ships • New technologies in radar and sonar helped in Allied win

    29. World War II Battlefronts • From North Africa to Italy • Operation Torch (1942) • U.S. – Dwight D. Eisenhower • Brits – Bernard Montgomery • Took North Africa from Germans • U.S. and Brits chased Germans through Italy

    30. World War II Battlefronts • D-Day ( June 6, 1944) • Operation Overlord • U.S. troops hit the beaches of Normandy • Gold, Juno, Sword, Utah, Omaha beaches • Airborne attacks • Pushed Germans back out of France • Battle of the Bulge (1944) • Germany’s last ditch effort

    31. German Surrender • Germans know they are beat after Battle of the Bulge • Hitler commits suicide on April 30, 1945 • May 7, 1945 – Germany surrenders to the Allies

    32. Fighting Japan • Mostly naval wars • Battle of Coral Sea (1942) • Battle of Midway (1942) • “Island Hopping” • Iwo Jima (1945) • 20,700 Japanese troops – only 200 survived • 6,000 U.S. Marines died

    33. Conference at Yalta • February 1945 • Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin • Germany would be broken into zones • Free elections • United Nations would be formed

    34. Fallen Leader • FDR Dies! – April 12, 1945 • Harry Truman takes the helm • Potsdam (July 1945) • End the war with Japan • Nuremburg Trials

    35. Potsdam

    36. Fighting Japan • Battle for Okinawa • U.S. – lost 50,000 • Japanese fought to the death • No end of the war in sight • Manhattan Project • J. Robert Oppenheimer

    37. Dropping the Bombs • August 6, 1945 – Hiroshima • August 9, 1945 – Nagasaki • Japanese surrender September 2, 1945