Minerals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Minerals

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  1. Minerals

  2. A Mineral is… • Naturally Occurring – not man made (artificial)

  3. A Mineral is… • Inorganic - not alive, never was alive, not made from a natural process

  4. A Mineral is… • Solid – not a liquid or a gas

  5. A Mineral is… • Unique Chemical Composition – every mineral is different

  6. A Mineral is… • Crystalline Structure – atoms repeat in patterns

  7. Do Now: Matching Mineral Characteristics • 1)Naturally Occurring • 2) Inorganic • 3) Solid • 4) Unique Composition • 5) Crystal Structure Not a liquid or a gas Every mineral has its own special chemical make-up Minerals are not made by man The atoms are arranged in repeating patterns Minerals are not alive, not made from a living process

  8. Crystal Shapes

  9. Basics of Crystals • Crystals are defined by the number of sides (faces) and the angles of these sides (geometry)

  10. 1. Cubic • cubic – all sides are square

  11. 2. Tetragonal • tetragonal – 4 rectangles, 2 squares

  12. 3. Orthorhombic • orthorhombic – all rectangles, 3 different sized rectangles

  13. 4. Monoclinic • monoclinic – 4 rectangles, 2 parallelograms

  14. 5. Triclinic • triclinic – all parallelograms

  15. 6. Hexagonal • hexagonal - six-sided prisms. When you look at the crystal on-end, the cross section is a hexagon

  16. 5 Characteristics Used to Identify Minerals • 1) Hardness • 2) Break Tendency • 3) Luster (metallic/non-metallic) • 4) Streak • 5) Color

  17. 1) Hardness (Moh’s Scale) • - how easily a mineral can be scratched

  18. 2) Break Tendency Conchoidal fracture – curved breakage • Fracture - breaks along rough, jagged edges • Cleavage – breaks along smooth, flat surfaces

  19. 3) Luster (metallic/non-metallic) • - how light shines off of its surface • Metallic Non-metallic

  20. 4) Streak Color of a mineral when broken or powdered

  21. 5) Color

  22. Mineral Groups • Minerals are often grouped together by their composition (what they are made of) • There are over 4,000 known minerals and only 7 groups

  23. 1. Silicates (most common) • Contain silicon and oxygen • Ex. Quartz, Olivine, Augite

  24. 2. Carbonates • Contain CO3 • Ex. Calcite, Dolomite

  25. 3. Oxides • Contain oxygen bonded with 1 or more elements • Ex. Corundum, Hematite

  26. 4. Sulfides and 5. Sulfates • Sulfides (contain Sulfur), Sulfates contain SO4 • Ex. Gypsum, Galena, Pyrite

  27. 6. Halides • Contain halogens (Fluorine, Chlorine, etc.) • Ex. Halite, Fluorite

  28. 7. Native Elements • Mostly metals, found as individual elements • Ex. Copper, Gold, Silver

  29. How do Minerals form? • 1. Cooling magma or lava • 2. Hydrothermal • 3. Evaporation of liquid solutions • 4. Precipitate out of solution

  30. 1. Cooling magma or lava

  31. 2. Hydrothermal

  32. 3. Evaporation of liquid solutions

  33. 4. Precipitate out of solution

  34. Other Properties of Minerals • Reactivity with Acid • Magnetic • Fluorescence • Phosphouresence • Density • Crystal Shape • Triboluminesence

  35. Reactivity with acid Magnetic • Carbonate minerals fizz when acid is applied • Some iron rich minerals are magnetic

  36. Fluorescence Phosphorescence

  37. Triboluminesence