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Ice breaker. Bilab ial sound (兩脣音 )([ b],[p],[m] ) ( 양순음 ). Two. Lip. Presentated by sun hong Hwang. Constructivism. Together build Kant, Giambattista Vico Kunh(1970): “Paradigm shift” Wittgenstein(1986): “Language game”

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bilab ial sound b p m

Ice breaker

Bilabial sound (兩脣音)([b],[p],[m]) (양순음)



Presentated by sun hong Hwang

  • Together build
  • Kant, Giambattista Vico
  • Kunh(1970): “Paradigm shift”
  • Wittgenstein(1986): “Language game”
  • Richard Rotry(1991): “Knowledge and understanding are ethnocentric, and viability is established through obtaining unforced agreement within the community.”
  • Ex) The earth is square.
constructivism vs objectivism
Constructivism vs Objectivism

1. To understand and share different viewpoints about the situation. vs

To discover a single, objective reality

2. Context is unique to that situation. vs

Context is stripped away to get at the

essential variables.

3. Values affect the outcome of any inquiry. Vs value-free inquiry.

c onstructivists as educators
Constructivists as educators

1.John Dewey(1916) : Situated learning and learning by doing.

2.Jerome Bruner(1966) : Discovery learning.

3.Vygotsky : Learning by collaboration.

4. Lave & Wenger : Learning by coparticipation.

c o gnitive constructivism and sociocultural constructivism
Cognitive constructivism and Sociocultural constructivism.
  • PC(Personal computer) is Piaget and NC(Network computer) is Vygotsky.

Early 1900

Mid 1900

Late 1900




Cognitive constructivism

instructional system design
Instructional system design
  • Skinner and Gagne
  • Behavioristic and Army-based instruction.
  • Determine needs, problems, or purposes for instructionAnalyze instructional goals, learners, and settings. Design instructional plans, activities and materials. Evaluate processes and outcomes.
discovery learning
Discovery learning
  • Bruner’s design of the social studies curriculum in the 1960

2. The problem is that students discover what teachers ask them to discover.

3. C: Think of “discover” as “invention”, a personal construction.

zone of proximal development
Zone of proximal development

1. Zone that learners can solve the problem only with adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. – “joint” cognition.

2.C:Focus moves from how we teach to how we design a learning environments

  • It includes the support or affordances of the environment.

2. It suggests a guiding and teaching of the learner toward some well-defined end. “Structural” metaphor

3. C: It must be viewed as a learning environment- as supporting the growth of the learner.

cognitive apprenticeship
Cognitive Apprenticeship
  • Engaging learners in cognitive and metacognitive activities that involve the authentic use of information is a central goal in our instruction design.
  • Ex) Lave and Wenger’s AA model

A teacher as a coach provides the scaffold for the learner. This is becoming common rhetoric in instructional theory, and the constructivist “movement” has been a primary stimulus for this shift in teacher/trainer role.

  • Context is a variable to make a generalized case.
  • C: Context cross-over generalization is a problematic. Ex) situated cognition.
learner control
Learner control
  • Teacher-centered and computer-controlled instructional approaches take responsibility away from the learner. – Learners’ control by a teacher.

2. C: Learners are people who control their learning.

  • The most undeveloped part of constructivism. “Thorndike won over Dewey.”
  • Performance assessment, portfolios, authentic assessment.
  • The test is embedded within the activity. Ex) medial school.
collaborative learning
Collaborative learning
  • The central strategy of constructivism
  • To promote the dialogical interchange and reflexivity.