Warm-Up / EOC Prep. 1) The random distribution of homologous chromosomes during the metaphase of meiosis is called what? A. Crossing over B. Budding C. Independent assortment D. Mutation 2) Put the following terms in order from smallest to largest: Chromosomes, DNA, genes, nucleus
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Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1) The random distribution of homologous chromosomes during the metaphase of meiosis is called what? A. Crossing over B. Budding C. Independent assortment D. Mutation 2) Put the following terms in order from smallest to largest: Chromosomes, DNA, genes, nucleus A. DNA, nucleus, chromosomes, genes B. genes, chromosomes, nucleus, DNA C. DNA, genes, chromosomes, nucleus D. DNA, chromosomes, genes, nucleus
Agenda • Warm-Up • Mutation Practice • Notes- Reviewing Genetics • Alien Encounter! • Cool-Down
Mutation Practice Name the correct mutation! • Normal Gene: ACA TCA CCG • Mutation # 1: ACG TCA CCG • Mutation # 2: ACA ACT CCG • Mutation # 3: AAT CAC CG
Mutation Practice Name the correct mutation! • Normal Gene: TCG CCG ACG • Mutation # 1: TCT GCC GAC G • Mutation # 2: TCG CCG CCG ACG • Mutation # 3: GCC GCT ACG
The sequence of nucleotides in DNA codes for proteins – the central key to cell function and life.
DNA Replication • The process allows daughter cells to have an exact copy of parental DNA. • The daughter strands are made of one “old” and one “new” strand. • Mutations are changes in the DNA code. • DNA replication happens during the Synthesis phase of Interphase (S phase) • Relatively weak hydrogen bonds allow the DNA strands to separate and then rebind during replication.
Protein Synthesis- DNA transcription • Transcription produces an RNA copy of DNA, which is further modified into the three types of RNA. • mRNA travels to the ribosome (rRNA)
Protein Synthesis- Translation • Translation – the process of making proteins from mRNA . • tRNA supplies appropriate amino acids to the ribosome. • Amino acids linked by peptide bonds form polypeptides (amino acid chains) which are folded into proteins.
Complementary Base Pair Rules • DNA to complementary DNA strand (during DNA replication) • A – T • T – A • C – G • G – C • Example: ACT CTA ACG CAC GTT CCT
Complementary Base Pair Rules • DNA to complementary mRNA strand (during DNA transcription) • A – U • T – A • C – G • G – C • Example: ACT CTA ACG TTC ACG GCA
Complementary Base Pair Rules • mRNA to complementary DNA strand (during reverse transcription) • U – A • A – T • C – G • G – C • Example: ACU CUA UCG CUA UAC GGA
Complementary Base Pair Rules • mRNA to tRNA (codon to complementary anti-codon sequence ) • A – U • U – A • C – G • G – C • Example: UGA CGU UAC GUA CAU CCG
Complementary Base Pair Rules • mRNA to amino acid chain (during translation) • Example: ACU AUC UUC CGA CCC GAC
Gene Regulation • All of an organism’s cells have the same DNA but differ based on the expression of genes. • Multicellular organisms have differentiated cells. • Cells respond to their environment by producing different types and amounts of protein. • Overproduction, underproduction, or production of proteins at the incorrect times can have advantages (injury repair) and disadvantages (cancer).
Alien Encounters • Complete the Alien Encounter activity after being given your own DNA sequence. • Follow the instructions given on the paper. • You will be transcribing, translating, and determining traits of your own alien. • Check your results with me before you begin drawing your alien.
Cool-Down 1- The purpose of replication is to take _________ and make ___________. 2- The purpose of transcription is to take _________ and make ___________. 3- The purpose of translation is to take _________ and make ___________.