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Key terms and topics. FINAL EXAM REVIEW. The people and institutions with authority to make and enforce laws and manage disputes about laws Social institutions Government Sovereignty Democracy. Power of a nation-state (country) to govern itself Government Democracy Social contract

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key terms and topics

Key terms and topics

FINAL EXAM REVIEW

slide2

The people and institutions with authority to make and enforce laws and manage disputes about laws

    • Social institutions
    • Government
    • Sovereignty
    • Democracy
slide3

Power of a nation-state (country) to govern itself

    • Government
    • Democracy
    • Social contract
    • Sovereignty
slide4

Agreement that the government will protect the citizens and the citizens will support the government

    • Social contract
    • Divine right
    • Sovereignty
    • Democracy
slide5

The belief that rulers derive their authority directly from God and are accountable only to him

    • Divine right
    • Sovereignty
    • Monarchy
    • Communism
slide6

A form of government in which governmental powers are divided between a central authority and a number of regional subdivisions

    • Parliamentary government
    • Presidential government
    • Federal government
    • Confederate government
slide7

A political system in which a weak central government has limited authority and the states have ultimate power

    • Federalism
    • Direct democracy
    • Dictatorship
    • Confederation
slide8

A form of government in which the executive leaders are chosen by and responsible to the legislature

    • Parliamentary government
    • Presidential government
    • Direct democracy
    • Representative democracy
slide9

Government ruled by king/queen. Ruler’s power is hereditary.

    • Dictatorship
    • Democracy
    • Republic
    • Monarchy
slide10

A form of government in which an absolute ruler controls the power, often through fear or force and ignores the will of the people

    • Monarchy
    • Republic
    • Dictatorship
    • Communism
slide11

A system of government in which the state controls the means of production

    • Communism
    • Dictatorship
    • Parliamentary government
    • Federalism
slide12

A system of government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives

    • Direct democracy
    • Democracy
    • Representative democracy
    • Republic
slide13

A democratic system of government in which all citizens participate in politics and decision-making, such as town meetings

    • Republic
    • Representative democracy
    • Democracy
    • Direct democracy
slide14

A democratic system of government in which policies are made by officials accountable to the people who elected them (United States form of government)

    • Republic
    • Representative democracy
    • Democracy
    • Direct democracy
slide15

A democracy in which the supreme power lies with the citizens who vote for officials and representatives responsible to them (Rome’s form of government)

    • Republic
    • Representative democracy
    • Democracy
    • Direct democracy
slide16

1215 – the first document to limit the power of the king

    • Magna Carta
    • English Bill of Rights
    • Constitution
    • Articles of Confederation
slide17

Sets of ideas that people have about relationships, obligations, roles and functions in society. Human groups developed to respond to human needs, structure society and influence behavior.

    • Economic systems
    • Interdependent
    • Social interactions
    • Social institutions
slide18

What a government is allowed to do; they may be limited by a constitution

    • Separation of powers
    • Powers of government
    • Federalism
    • Checks and balances
slide19

John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, the Greeks, the Romans, the British and the Iroquois Confederacy

    • Powers of government
    • Forms of government
    • Government influences
    • Economic systems
slide20

State control of business, labor unions, church and political parties

    • Democracy
    • Republic
    • Monarchy
    • Totalitarianism
slide21

rule of law, limited government, consent of the governed, individual rights, and representative government

    • functions of government
    • democratic principles
    • types of government
    • social institutions
slide22

making a distinction in favor of or against a person, based on the group, class, or category to which that person belongs rather than on individual merit

    • discrimination
    • segregation
    • perception
    • intolerance
slide23

an introductory statement to any writing or document such as the Declaration of Independence or Constitution

    • conclusion
    • epilogue
    • beginning
    • preamble
slide24

the right to vote - which women met at Seneca Falls for and finally earned in 1920

    • Bill of Rights
    • affirmative action
    • suffrage
    • voting amendments
slide25

the practice or policy of creating separate facilities within the same society for the use of a minority

    • discrimination
    • segregation
    • intolerance
    • perception
slide26

government and private policies designed to provide equal opportunity for minority groups that have suffered from discrimination in the past

    • discrimination
    • desegregation
    • immigration
    • affirmative action
slide27

Positives/negatives – before/after

    • Pre/post – pro/con
    • Con/pro – post/pre
    • Pro/con – pre/post
    • Primary/secondary source
slide28

Before Christ/Anno Domini

    • Secondary source/primary source
    • Primary source/secondary source
    • AD/BC timeline
    • BC/AD timeline
slide29

Account from someone who was there/account from someone who heard about it, but wasn’t there

    • Secondary source/primary source
    • Primary source/secondary source
    • AD/BC timeline
    • BC/AD timeline
slide30

Measures distance north/south of the equator and east/west of the prime meridian

    • Longitude/latitude
    • Latitude/longitude
    • AD/BC timeline
    • Pro/con
slide31

Natural (come from the earth); human (labor/work); capital (man-made goods)

    • Hemispheres
    • Latitude/longitude
    • Primary/secondary
    • Resources
slide32

The northern and southern halves of the world divided by the equator and the eastern and western halves of the world divided by the prime meridian

    • Hemispheres
    • Latitude/longitude
    • Primary/secondary
    • Resources
slide33

Location, place, region, movement, human/environment interaction

    • Themes of Geography
    • Types of Government
    • Culture
    • Economic Systems
slide34

Traditional (Native Americans); Command (China); Market; Mixes (United States)

    • Themes of Geography
    • Types of Government
    • Culture
    • Economic Systems
slide35

Not enough of something/what we give up when we make choices

    • Scarcity/opportunity cost
    • Costs/benefits
    • Supply/demand
    • Pro/con
slide36

Promotes well being; advantages

    • Costs
    • Benefits
    • Supply
    • Demand
slide37

Train in one particular area

    • Assembly line
    • Mass media
    • Specialization
    • Responsibilities
slide39

How much there is/how much people want; affects price

    • Scarcity/opportunity cost
    • Costs/benefits
    • Supply/demand
    • Pro/con
slide40

The management of the resources of a community or country; expenditures and consumption of goods and services

    • Budget
    • Costs
    • Benefits
    • Economy
slide41

Newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets which reach a large number of people (today it would include radio, TV and the Internet)

    • Peaceful protest
    • Mass Media
    • Social Interaction
    • Social Institutions
slide42

The way people/groups in society treat one another – cooperation, conflict and compromise

    • Social interaction
    • Social institutions
    • Culture
    • Economy
slide43

A society’s way of life – religion, literature, arts, customs, beliefs, etc.

    • Economy
    • Government
    • Specialization
    • Culture
slide44

Bluegrass, knobs, Jackson Purchase, pennyroyal, western coal fields, eastern mountains/coal fields

    • Cultural regions
    • Economic areas
    • Regions of Kentucky
    • Regions of the mid-west
slide45

a plan, often written, that details the rules, functions, and principles of a government

    • preamble
    • constitution
    • declaration
    • bill
slide46

form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty

    • goals of the Constitution
    • functions of government
    • government influences
    • democratic principles
slide47

written by Thomas Jefferson; used traditional English political rights to call for independence for the colonies (unalienable rights, social contract, rule of law)

    • Articles of Confederation
    • Bill of Rights
    • Constitution
    • Declaration of Independence
slide48

added to the Constitution in 1791; the first 10 amendments to the Constitution which protect our civil liberties

    • unalienable rights
    • Declaration of Independence
    • Bill of Rights
    • voting amendments
slide49

guarantees freedoms essential to American democracy (speech, religion, assembly, etc)

    • 1st Amendment
    • Bill of Rights
    • suffrage
    • preamble
slide50

number 15 (Minority Men); Number 19 (women); Number 23 (people in D.C.); Number 26 (18 year olds)

    • Bill of Rights
    • suffrage
    • affirmative action
    • voting amendments
slide51

in exercising your own rights you cannot infringe on the rights of another person (ex. shouting “fire” in a crowded theatre or using hate speech)

    • natural rights
    • limits to rights
    • unalienable rights
    • rights of the accused
slide52

amendments four through eight which, among other things, guarantee citizens due process of law and protect them from cruel and unusual punishment

    • rights of the accused
    • limits to rights
    • Bill of Rights
    • suffrage
slide53

“life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”

    • natural rights
    • Bill of Rights
    • unalienable rights
    • state of nature
slide54

Makes laws; has two parts (Senate and House of Representatives)

    • Supreme Court
    • Congress
    • Cabinet
    • Parliament
slide55

Legislative, Executive, Judicial

    • Parts of Congress
    • 3 Branches of Government
    • Federal System
    • Representative Government
slide56

Branch of government responsible for carrying out or executing the laws

    • Executive Branch
    • Judicial Branch
    • Legislative Branch
    • 3 Branches of Government
slide57

Also known as Congress, branch of government that makes laws

    • Executive Branch
    • Judicial Branch
    • Legislative Branch
    • 3 Branches of Government
slide58

Studies and interprets the Constitution and determines if laws/actions are Constitutional

    • Executive Branch
    • Judicial Branch
    • Legislative Branch
    • 3 Branches of Government
slide59

Each branch of government has some power over the other; prevents any one branch from becoming all powerful or abusing their power

    • Separation of Powers
    • 3 Branches of Government
    • Articles of Confederation
    • Checks and Balances
slide60

Governments’ powers are divided among three branches to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of any one person of group of people

    • Separation of Powers
    • 3 Branches of Government
    • Articles of Confederation
    • Checks and Balances
slide61

Power of the President to reject a bill and attempt to keep it from becoming a law

    • Override
    • Declare Unconstitutional
    • Impeach
    • Veto
slide62

2/3rds vote of Congress to pass a bill into law even though the President refused to sign it.

    • Override
    • Declare Unconstitutional
    • Impeach
    • Veto
slide63

Accuse a political official of misconduct while in office (House of Representatives has the power to start this process)

    • Override
    • Declare Unconstitutional
    • Impeach
    • Veto
slide64

Number of people per square mile. Urban areas are high and rural areas are low. Determines how many representatives each state gets in the House of Representatives.

    • Census
    • Population Density
    • Tariffs
    • Budget
slide65

Population count done every 10 years. Can change the number of representatives each state gets in the House of Representatives & number of electoral votes for each state is worth.

    • Census
    • Population Density
    • Tariffs
    • Budget
slide66

Plan for making and spending money. Congress is responsible for it.

    • Census
    • Population Density
    • Tariffs
    • Budget
slide67

When two or more groups need each other in order for something to work

    • Levels of government
    • Elastic clause
    • Grants
    • Interdependent
slide68

National, State & Local

    • Levels of government
    • Federalism
    • Interdependent
    • Concurrent powers
slide69

Federal funds given to a state or local government

    • Mandates
    • Federalism
    • Grants
    • Elastic Clause
slide70

The division of governmental power between the national government and the fifty states

    • Interdependent
    • Federalism
    • Levels of government
    • Concurrent powers
slide71

The powers that both national and state governments have

    • Delegated/enumerated/expressed powers
    • Reserved powers
    • Inherent powers
    • Concurrent powers
slide72

The powers that the states keep for themselves

    • Delegated/enumerated/expressed powers
    • Reserved powers
    • Inherent powers
    • Concurrent powers
slide73

Powers that are specifically granted to the federal government by the Constitution

    • Delegated/enumerated/expressed powers
    • Reserved powers
    • Inherent powers
    • Concurrent powers
slide74

Allows Congress to pass laws as necessary to carry out its authorized powers

    • Implied powers
    • Mandate
    • Grants
    • Elastic clause
slide75

English legislative body; has two parts – House of Commons and House of Lords

    • Parliament
    • Congress
    • Cabinet
    • Supreme Court
slide76

First Constitution of the new country, had a weak national government

    • Declaration of Independence
    • Articles of Confederation
    • Constitution
    • Magna Carta
slide77

15 experts who advise the president in different areas. Examples – Secretary of Defense, Secretary of the Treasury, etc.

    • Congress
    • Supreme Court
    • Cabinet
    • Parliament
slide78

The Supreme Court’s power to declare a law unconstitutional

    • Judicial review
    • Veto
    • Override
    • Impeach
slide79

9 Justices who interpret the laws and Constitution and decide whether things are constitutional or not

    • Congress
    • Cabinet
    • Parliament
    • Supreme Court
slide80

A formal change to the Constitution. It is a difficult process. There have only been 27 additions or changes to the Constitution in over 200 years

    • Suffrage
    • Amendment
    • Bill of Rights
    • Voting amendments
slide81

Things U.S. citizens HAVE to do. For examples – pay taxes, obey laws and serve on a jury

    • Wants
    • Duties
    • Rights
    • Responsibilities
slide82

Legal process by which immigrants become U.S. citizens

    • Naturalization
    • Citizenship
    • Immigration
    • Emigration
slide83

A group of people named by each state legislature to select the President and Vice-president. There are 538 members.

    • Congress
    • Cabinet
    • Supreme Court
    • Electoral College
slide84

Things as a U.S. citizen you SHOULD do. For example – voting

    • Wants
    • Duties
    • Rights
    • Responsibilities
slide85

A community member who owes loyalty to the government and is entitled to protection from it

    • Immigrant
    • Emigrant
    • Slave
    • Citizen
slide86

1862 document that freed all slaves in the Confederacy

    • Gettysburg Address
    • Inaugural Address
    • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Civil Rights Proclamation
slide87

An expression exclaiming the importance of the crop to the south

    • “corn is king”
    • “tobacco is king”
    • “polyester is king”
    • “cotton is king”
slide88

Given by President Lincoln, one of the greatest speeches in American history; said human equality was greater cause than state’s rights

    • Gettysburg Address
    • Inaugural Address
    • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Civil Rights Proclamation
slide89

Fighting on home soil, only had to defend, motivated because they were fighting for their way of life

    • Advantages of the North in the Civil War
    • Advantages of the South in the Civil War
    • Advantages of the British in the Civil War
    • Advantages of the British in the War of 1812
slide90

Larger population, more industry, more abundant resources, more ships, larger navy, larger railroad system, Abraham Lincoln

    • Advantages of the North in the Civil War
    • Advantages of the South in the Civil War
    • Advantages of the British in the Revolutionary War
    • Advantages of the Rebels/Patriots in the Revolutionary War
slide91

People who strongly favored doing away with slavery

    • Northerners
    • Confederates
    • Abolitionists
    • Citizens
slide92

Plants such as cotton or tobacco, raise to be sold for money

    • Sustenance farming
    • Cash Crop
    • “cotton is king”
    • Culture
slide93

Abolished slavery, guaranteed all citizens equal protection of the law, and prohibited restricting the right to vote based on race or color

    • Civil War Amendments
    • Civil Rights Amendments
    • Suffrage Amendments
    • Rights of the accused
slide94

War fought between the Union (North) and the Confederacy (South) over slavery and state’s rights

    • Revolutionary War
    • War of 1812
    • French and Indian War
    • Civil War
slide95

Personal liberties established by the 13th and 14th amendments and congressional acts, applied to an individual or a minority group. Full legal, social and economic equality regardless of race.

    • Suffrage
    • Amendments
    • Bill of Rights
    • Civil Rights
slide96

Social goal of leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the developing of a culture that draws on diversity

    • Segregation
    • Integration
    • Affirmative action
    • Discrimination
slide97

Includes boycotts, strikes, picket lines, resolutions, and the circulation of grievances (petitions)

    • Naturalization
    • Affirmative action
    • Peaceful protest
    • Specialization
slide98

This law prohibited discrimination in public facilities, employment, education and voter registration. It banned discrimination based on race, gender, religion or national origin

    • Brown v. Board of Education
    • Affirmative Action
    • Voting Amendments
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
slide100

Civilization defined by the Nile River

    • Egypt
    • Mesopotamia
    • Greece
    • Brazil
slide101

Islamic holy book

    • Torah
    • Koran
    • Bible
    • Common Sense
slide102

Jewish holy book

    • Torah
    • Koran
    • Bible
    • Common Sense
slide103

Pictographic script of the ancient Egyptians, recognizable pictures of the things represented

    • Cuneiform
    • Terracing
    • Mercantilism
    • Hieroglyphics
slide104

Wedge-shaped characters employed in the writing of several ancient languages of Mesopotamia/Sumerians. First form of written language.

    • Cuneiform
    • Terracing
    • Mercantilism
    • Hieroglyphics
slide105

The Incas did this (creating flat surfaces) in order to farm in the mountains

    • Migration
    • Terracing
    • Mercantilism
    • Irrigation
slide106

The artificial application of water to assist in the production of crops

    • Migration
    • Terracing
    • Mercantilism
    • Irrigation
slide107

First set of written laws dealing with criminal and civil matters

    • Magna Carta
    • Mayflower Compact
    • Constitution
    • Code of Hammurabi
slide108

The legal and social system in Europe in the 8th and 9th centuries, in which vassals were protected by their lords, usually through the granting of fiefs, and were required to serve under them in war

    • Feudalism
    • Federalism
    • Totalitarianism
    • Communism
slide109

Military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims

    • Guilds
    • Crusades
    • Tariffs
    • Exploration
slide110

What causes people to leave an area and choose to move to another

    • Migration
    • Immigration
    • Push/pull factors
    • Imports/exports
slide111

Country/city

    • Urban/rural
    • Fast-paced/slow-paced
    • Industry/agriculture
    • Rural/urban
slide112

Increase in productivity and improvements in farming technology

    • Age of Exploration
    • Agricultural Revolution
    • Industrial Revolution
    • Civil Rights Movement
slide113

Association of people with same interest (medieval times – merchants and artisans) formed for mutual aid and protection

    • Guilds
    • Town meetings
    • Unions
    • Colonies
slide114

15th-17th century. The period is characterized as a time when Europeans went by sea in search of trading partners, new goods, and new trade routes

    • Age of Exploration
    • Agricultural Revolution
    • Industrial Revolution
    • Civil Rights Movement
slide115

The movement of non-native people to a country in order to settle there

    • Emigration
    • Migration
    • Push/pull factors
    • Immigration
slide116

The movement of a population from one area to another

    • Emigration
    • Migration
    • Push/pull factors
    • Immigration
slide117

A person who is the property of another

    • Indentured servant
    • Slave
    • Citizen
    • Soldier
slide118

A person who was given freedom after fulfilling a work contract

    • Indentured servant
    • Slave
    • Citizen
    • Soldier
slide119

A route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American Colonies, Britain and/or West Africa

    • Colombian Exchange
    • Great Convergence
    • Mercantilism
    • Triangular Trade
slide120

The mixing of European, African and Native American people beginning in the late 15th century

    • Colombian Exchange
    • Great Convergence
    • Mercantilism
    • Triangular Trade
slide121

Wealth of a nation depends on its possession of land and precious metals

    • Naturalization
    • Mercantilism
    • Budget
    • Specialization
slide125

British tax that required paying for a stamp on all paper documents

    • Tea Act
    • Intolerable Acts
    • Quartering Act
    • Stamp Act
slide126

A form of direct democratic rule in which most or all the members of a community comes together to legislate policy and budgets for local government

    • Mandates
    • Town meetings
    • Guilds
    • Feudalism
slide127

Colonists who remained loyal to King George III and Great Britain during the Revolution

    • Loyalist
    • Patriot
    • Citizen
    • Congressman
slide128

Taxes on imports and exports; angered the colonists and fueled rebellion

    • Budget
    • Costs
    • Boycott
    • Tariffs
slide129

Colonists who rebelled against the king and supported independence during the Revolution

    • Loyalist
    • Patriot
    • Citizen
    • Congressman
slide131

Series of laws sponsored by British Prime Minister Lord North and enacted in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party

    • Tea Act
    • Intolerable Acts
    • Quartering Act
    • Stamp Act
slide132

Colonists antagonized British soldiers who then shot and killed five Bostonians

    • Boston Massacre
    • Boston Tea Party
    • Shay’s Rebellion
    • Philadelphia Convention
slide133

In protest of Tea Act, colonists dressed as natives and dumped tea overboard into Boston Harbor

    • Boston Massacre
    • Boston Tea Party
    • Shay’s Rebellion
    • Philadelphia Convention
slide134

An uprising by farmers in Massachusetts against the new central government

    • Boston Massacre
    • Boston Tea Party
    • Shay’s Rebellion
    • Philadelphia Convention
slide135

1787 meeting at which the Constitution was written

    • Boston Massacre
    • Boston Tea Party
    • Shay’s Rebellion
    • Philadelphia Convention
slide136

Favored by large states, it created a strong national government with 3 branches and a Congress based on population

    • Great Compromise
    • New Jersey Plan
    • Virginia Plan
    • Three-Fifths Compromise
slide137

Congress with 2 parts; House of Representatives with representation based on population and Senate with equal representation

    • Great Compromise
    • New Jersey Plan
    • Virginia Plan
    • Three-Fifths Compromise
slide138

Favored by the small states, it wanted a weak national government and a Congress with equal representation

    • Great Compromise
    • New Jersey Plan
    • Virginia Plan
    • Three-Fifths Compromise
slide139

The addition of the territory west of the Mississippi River, east of the Rocky Mountains, north of New Spain and south of Canada. Land was acquired through a deal with Napoleon/France

    • Louisiana Purchase
    • Gadsden Purchase
    • Homestead Act
    • Missouri Compromise/Compromise of 1850
slide140

Present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that was purchased by the U.S. in the last major territorial acquisition

    • Louisiana Purchase
    • Gadsden Purchase
    • Homestead Act
    • Missouri Compromise/Compromise of 1850
slide141

A law giving 160 free acres of land to any settler who would pay the filing fee and live on the land for 5 years

    • Louisiana Purchase
    • Gadsden Purchase
    • Homestead Act
    • Missouri Compromise/Compromise of 1850
slide142

The missing together of people from many ethnic backgrounds and from many countries in the United States

    • Salad bowl
    • Soup
    • Melting pot
    • Cast iron skillet
slide143

The war between the United States and Great Britain from 1812 to 1815

    • Revolutionary War
    • War of 1812
    • Civil War
    • World War I
slide144

The route along which the U.S. government forced several tribes of Native Americans to migrate to reservations west of the Mississippi River in the mid 1800’s

    • Assembly line
    • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Trail of Tear
    • Manifest Destiny
slide145

People who went to California during the gold rush

    • Chinese
    • Mormons
    • Homesteaders
    • Forty-niners
slide146

The change from an agrarian society to one based on urban industry that began in Great Britain and spread to the U.S. around 1800

    • Industrial Revolution
    • American Revolution
    • Agricultural Revolution
    • Manifest Destiny
slide147

Henry Clay instrumental in compromises involving free and slave states

    • 3/5ths Compromise
    • Great Compromise
    • New Jersey Compromise
    • Missouri Compromise/Compromise of 1850
slide148

Organizations of workers to improve pay and working conditions

    • Guilds
    • Labor Unions
    • Tariffs
    • Congress
slide149

A manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting methods. Developed by Ford Motor Company

    • Assembly line
    • Industrial revolution
    • Mill process
    • Economics
slide150

The populating (by Europeans) of the land within the continental boundaries of the mainland U.S.

    • Manifest Destiny
    • Westward Movement
    • Exploration
    • Migration
slide151

The idea popular in the U.S. during the 1800’s that the country must expand its boundaries to the west coast. It was a “God-given right.”

    • Manifest Destiny
    • Westward Movement
    • Exploration
    • Migration