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The Opening of the Brooklyn Bridge on May 24, 1883 displayed American ingenuity, ambition, and industrial might to the w PowerPoint Presentation
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The Opening of the Brooklyn Bridge on May 24, 1883 displayed American ingenuity, ambition, and industrial might to the world. Section 1: A Technological Revolution Pages 456-465. Main Ideas (make sure you know these!).

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The Opening of the Brooklyn Bridge on May 24, 1883 displayed American ingenuity, ambition, and industrial might to the world

Section 1: A Technological Revolution

Pages 456-465

main ideas make sure you know these
Main Ideas (make sure you know these!)
  • After the Civil War (1861-1865) the U.S. developed into one of the world’s industrial powers
  • Entrepreneurs funded inventors & scientists leading to an explosion of new products & improvements to many existing ones
  • This 2nd Industrial Revolution continued to impact & change people’s daily lives at work and home
  • The social problems that accompanied early industrialization & urbanization still existed
investing in technology
Investing in Technology
  • Business leaders in Europe & America began to invest in new inventions, as well as fund scientific research to find the next big thing
    • How much innovation was going on??
      • From 1790-1860 there were 36,000 patents issued
      • From 1860-1890 there were more than 500,000
  • This investment led to a dramatic rise in America’s industrial productivity
    • The amount of goods and services created in a country in a given period of time
growth of the oil industry i
Growth of the Oil Industry I
  • Old Methods of Obtaining Oil:
    • Melting whale fat
    • Digging a huge pit and hoping it seeped through to the surface
    • Time consuming & expensive
  • Edwin Drake’s new idea:
    • DRILL!
    • Drake Oil Well Museum,

Titusville, Pennsylvania

growth of the oil industry ii
Growth of the Oil Industry II
  • Drake first struck oil by drilling in 1859
  • Drilling for oil became a major industry
  • Crude oil was refined to produce kerosene for heating fuel & lighting fuel
    • A byproduct of this process is ethanol (gasoline), which was thrown away at first but became a separate industry in the early 1900’s with the invention of the automobile
  • Oil refineries became a huge part of the industry
electricity
Electricity!!

Thomas Edison – direct current

George Westinghouse – alternating current

thomas alva edison
Thomas Alva Edison
  • Famous lab located in Menlo Park, NJ
  • 1880 – invented the light bulb!
  • 1882 – opened 1st central power station that lit dozens of buildings in NYC
  • By 1890 power stations were nationwide
    • Supplying electric power to new products like:
      • lamps
      • Fans
      • Other new inventions (that means new industries!)
george westinghouse
George Westinghouse
  • Used a transformer to boost power levels as the electricity left the station so it could be sent long distances
  • A second transformer at the receiving station reduced the power level so it could be used
  • Made home use of electricity for the masses practical!
direct vs alternating current
Direct vs. Alternating Current
  • Direct
    • Edison
    • Expensive
    • Could only travel 1-2 miles
  • Alternating
    • Westinghouse
    • Cheaper to generate than direct current
    • Could travel very long distances
impact of electricity
Impact of Electricity
  • Improved the productivity of business
  • Created new jobs
  • Made refrigeration possible
  • While most urban Americans benefited from electricity, many rural Americans went without the benefits of electricity until well into the 1900’s
the 1 st communication revolution
The 1st Communication Revolution
  • 1st message sent by telegraph in 1844
    • “What hath God wrought?” (bonus ?!!)
  • Technology perfected by Samuel Morse, who developed a system of dots and dashes to represent letters of the alphabet
    • MORSE CODE
the telephone what would you do without your phone
The Telephone (what would you do without your phone??)
  • Invented by Alexander Graham Bell, 1876
  • 1885: American Telephone & Telegraph Co. established to build long distance phone lines
  • By 1900 there were 1 million phones in use in the United States
a national market is created
A National Market is Created
  • Transcontinental Railroad: trans = across; continental = continent (North America, in this case)
  • New rails were to be laid between the existing track in the East and West Coast
  • Federal Gov’t gave huge loans & grants to two private companies to strengthen the nation’s infrastructure
    • Union Pacific: build from Omaha, Nebraska to the West
    • Central Pacific:from Sacramento, California to the East
transcontinental railroad
Transcontinental Railroad
  • Most workers were immigrants
    • Union Pacific: Irish & Euros
    • Central Pacific: Chinese
  • Fiercely proud of the work they did
    • Moved to America for economic opportunity
    • Happy to have a job
    • Proud to contribute to the growth & strength of their new country
railroad improvements
Railroad Improvements
  • Steel rails replace iron rails
  • Track gauges became standardized
  • Signals became standardized
  • Westinghouse – developed an improved air braking system
  • Train-specific telegraph patented for communication between trains (early CB radio)
how did the railroads aid industry
How did the Railroads aid industry?
  • Faster & more practical way to transport goods
  • Lower production costs
  • Creation of a national market
  • A model for other big business
  • Stimulates the growth of other industries
  • Hmmm….this seems important, and there are 5 bullet points… I wonder if this will be an extended response question??
a new age of building
A New Age of Building
  • Bessemer Process: a cheaper, easier way to remove the impurities from steel during the steel making process
  • Advantages of Steel vs. Iron
    • Lighter
    • Stronger
    • Flexible
    • Could build taller, stronger, more architecturally innovative buildings
the steel industry
The Steel Industry
  • The geography of Pennsylvania soon made it the steel capital of the world
  • Pittsburgh sits at the junction of three rivers, thus a crucial spot for shipping steel… hence the football team PITTSBURGH STEELERS!
  • The Bessemer Process made the mass production of steel possible
    • Production of any good in a great amount
    • By the early 1900’s the US accounted for more than 80% of the world’s steel production