The Battles of the American Revolution From Lexington to Yorktown
LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS The first part of the first battle – before war was declared – in April, 1775. Famous ride of Paul Revere and William Dawes. Caused King George III to declare the colonies in rebellion.
CONCORD, MASSACHUSETTS The second part of the first battle – the bridge where the British were pushed back to Boston.
The Concord Hymn by Ralph Waldo Emerson By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April's breeze unfurled;Here once the embattled farmers stood; And fired the shot heard round the world.
The Battle at Bunker Hill,Massachusetts • First actual battle of war in June, 1775 – really at Breed’s Hill. Americans laid in waiting until they saw “the white in their eyes,” and opened fire on the British. British suffered over 1,000 casualties. Americans lost hill but proved themselves. Washington came a few days later, and British were forced to leave Massachusetts and go hide out in New York.
The Battle of Long Island, New York British crossed over onto Long Island from Staten Island – in rain – hit Americans – August, 1776 - Washington arrived from Boston and snuck soldiers out of New York City.
Washington looking for victory Reads Thomas Paine’s “An American Crisis” to encourage his men Opening lines become battle words for surprise attack at… These are the times that try men’s soul. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country, but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. An American Crisis
Trenton and Princeton,New Jersey • British had left for winter, bundled in cities to wait for spring. • Crossed Delaware River in middle of the night to surprise Hessians in Trenton Dec. 26. • British moved some troops to Princeton to defend New Jersey. • While British watched American campfires, Washington’s men surprised Brits at Princeton. • Both American victories
The Battle of Saratoga, New York • Washington not there • General Horatio Gates defeats General Burgoyne • Biggest American victory yet – October, 1777 • Causes French to join war on American side – thanks Ben Franklin…
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania • Winter of 1777 • Starving – eating shoes • Disillusioned • Deserters • Foreign Help from Baron Von Steuben • Marquis Lafayette
Bernardo de Galvez and 500 men attacked and defeated British forts from Louisiana all the way to Pensacola, Florida. John Paul Jones attacked the British coast destroying HM Serapis and saying, “I have only begun to fight.” Still Some Victories to be Had
Until finally atYorktown, Virginia • US’s Washington’s troops moved South based on intelligence gathered from James Armistead. • GB’s Cornwallis’ troops moved North. • Pushed British troops to coast where French ships bombed British positions. • Cornwallis forced to surrender – would not appear himself. Surrender of Cornwallis By John Trumbull
Treaty of Paris, 1783 • Great Britain recognized the United States officially • Spain regained Florida and keeps New Orleans but gives it and Louisiana Territory to France • U.S. to return Tory land • All prisoners of war to be released • U.S. border to Mississippi River, Great Lakes