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Hollow Sphere Dual Gradient Drilling System. JIP Kickoff Meeting. Dr. William C. Maurer September 27, 2001. DOE Hollow Sphere Underbalanced Drilling Project. GAS. LIQUID. Types of Flow Regimes. AERATED. FOAM. MIST. LIQUID. Lightweight Mud. LIGHT WEIGHT. MUD. HOLLOW SPHERES. MUD.

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Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Hollow SphereDual Gradient DrillingSystem

JIP Kickoff Meeting

Dr. William C. Maurer

September 27, 2001


Doe hollow sphere underbalanced drilling project
DOE Hollow SphereUnderbalanced Drilling Project


Types of flow regimes

GAS

LIQUID

Types of Flow Regimes

AERATED

FOAM

MIST

LIQUID


Lightweight mud
Lightweight Mud

LIGHT WEIGHT

MUD

HOLLOW SPHERES

MUD

1.02 S.G.

0.38 S.G.

0.70 S.G.

8.5 ppg

3.17 ppg

5.84 ppg



Particle sizes in unweighted water based mud after bourgoyne jr et al 1986
Particle Sizes in Unweighted, Water-Based Mud(After Bourgoyne Jr. et al, 1986)

MICRONS

.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000

10,000

Drilled Solids

Solids Percentage

MESH

Small

Hollow

Spheres

Bentonite

200

100

20

60

SILT

FINE

SAND

COARSE

SAND

GRAVEL




Oilfield hydroclone moore et al 1974
Oilfield Hydroclone(Moore et al., 1974)

Overflow Opening

(Hollow Spheres)

Feed Inlet

Feed Chamber

Vortex Finder

Vortex

Underflow Discharge

(Cuttings)





Hydrostatic gradients for conventional and riserless drilling snyder 1998
Hydrostatic Gradients for Conventional and Riserless Drilling(Snyder, 1998)

Mud hydrostatic pressure (D)

(

Riserless

)

Mud hydrostatic pressure (C)

Surface

(Conventional)

Casing

Fracture (B)

pressure

Depth

Seawater (E)

hydrostatic

Pore pressure (A)

pressure

Pressure


Riserless drilling system peterman 1998
Riserless Drilling System(Peterman, 1998)

Mud Return

and Pump

Return Line

Drillpipe

Riser

Diverter

Mudlift

Wellhead

Pump

and BOP

BHA


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system
“DGD is estimated to save $9 million per well and increase the project value by $150 to $250 million at Crazy Horse”

Andy Frazelle, BP (Wellconnected, Dec, 2000)


In an ultra deepwater well the savings could range from 5 15 million in casing running alone
“In an ultra-deepwater well, the savings could range from $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Conoco, 2001 (Drilling Contractor, May/June)


Mudlift system
Mudlift System $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

(Conoco/Hydril)


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Mudlift Pumping $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

System


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Mudlift Subsea Diaphragm Pumps $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Mudlift Subfloor Module $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Mudlift Subsea Diverter $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Mudlift Drillstring Valve $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Baker hughes transocean
(Baker Hughes/Transocean) $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

DEEPVISION System


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

DEEPVISION Subsea Centrifugal Pump $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Electrical connections

Pressure & volume

compensator

Motor cooling loop

Strainer for

compensator

Filter for bearing pack

Isolation valves for

motor filters

Isolation valves for

Bearing pack filters

Main filters

Pump suction

6-Stage pump

Pump discharge


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

DEEPVISION Subsea Module $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

10,000 ft. Pump Station

  • 5-pump module station

  • Size: 15’ *17’ * 40’

  • Weight: 350 kips

  • Max. available hhp 4050

  • ANSI 2500 (6250 psi) rated

  • Standard riser joint connection

  • Independent of BOP MUX control system

  • Self contained power and control


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

DEEPVISION Drillstring Valve $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

VALVE SEAT

& CONE

VALVE

PLUNGER

DISC SPRING

PACKAGE

4-3/4” Flow Stop Sub


Dgd rock removal rates
DGD Rock Removal Rates $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

12

12-1/4” Bit

8

Rock Removal Rate (tons/hr)

4

0

0

50

100

150

200

Drilling Rates (ft/hr)


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Shell SSPS System $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Shell ssps dgd system offshore june 2001
Shell SSPS DGD System $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”(Offshore, June 2001)

Existing Rig Pumps

From Rig

Power

Power Control

Mud Processing

Water Depth

6 - Pumps Total

Pump Section

Nitrogen

Tank

Motor & Seal

Control

Module

Level Sensor

For Process Control

Element Optional

For Fluid Sep.

Eductor

Pump

Check Valve


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

SSPS Gumbo Slide & Mud/Gas Separation $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Nitrogen Tank

Cut Away View

Nitrogen Tank

(Back-up)

Gumbo

Slide

Mud/Gas

Separator

Cuttings

Eductor

Flowline

Subsea BOP


Dual gradient project participation
Dual Gradient Project Participation $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

MUDLIFT

  • CONOCO*

  • HYDRIL*

  • BP

  • CHEVRON

  • TEXACO

  • DIAMOND OFFSHORE

  • GLOBAL MARINE

  • SCHLUMBERGER

DEEPVISION

  • BAKER HUGHES*

  • TRANSOCEAN SEDCO FOREX*

  • BP

  • CHEVRON

SSPS

  • SHELL


Hollow sphere dual gradient system
Hollow Sphere $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”Dual Gradient System


Surface hollow sphere system
Surface Hollow Sphere System $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Swivel

Shale Shaker

Mud Pump

(Spheres)

Spheres

Mud Pump

(Mud)

Mud

Drill Ship

Mud

Drillpipe

Spheres

& Mud

Mud & Spheres

Riser

Wellhead

and BOP

Valve

Mud Line

Mud

Drill String Valve

Rock

BHA


Hollow glass sphere technique
Hollow Glass Sphere Technique $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Mixture

Slurry

Hollow

Glass Spheres

Mud


New seafloor equipment
New Seafloor Equipment $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

DeepVision

Mudlift

Nothing

Shell SSPS

Maurer


Sea water density mud 50 spheres
Sea Water Density Mud $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”(50 % Spheres)

LIGHT WEIGHT

MUD

HOLLOW SPHERES

MUD

1.68 S.G.

0.38 S.G.

1.02 S.G.

14 ppg

3.17 ppg

8.56 ppg


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Mixture Density vs. Sphere Volume $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

18

Sphere Sp. Gr. = 0.38

16

14

12

Mixture Density, ppg

10

Mud Weight

ppg

8

18

16

14

6

12

Sea Water

10

Water

4

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Sphere Concentration (Volume %)


Dual gradient mud weights
Dual Gradient Mud Weights $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Sea Floor

10

12

14

Mud weight (ppg)

16

Fracture Gradient

18

Safe Zone

Pore Pressure


Single injection point
Single Injection Point $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Surface

Mud

& Spheres

Mud

& Spheres

Riser

Flow Line

Valve

Wellhead

and BOP

Sea Floor


Multiple injection points
Multiple Injection Points $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Surface

Valve

2,500’

Sea Water

& Spheres

5,000’

Riser

Flow Line

7,500’

10,000’

Sea Floor


Surface sphere separation
Surface Sphere Separation $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Shale

Shaker

Hollow

Spheres

Seawater

Mud

Drill Cuttings


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Large and Small Hollow Glass Spheres $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Particle sizes in unweighted water based mud after bourgoyne jr et al 19861
Particle Sizes in Unweighted, $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”Water-Based Mud(After Bourgoyne Jr. et al, 1986)

MICRONS

.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000

10,000

Drilled Solids

Large

Hollow

Spheres

Solids Percentage

MESH

Small

Hollow

Spheres

Bentonite

200

100

20

60

SILT

FINE

SAND

COARSE

SAND

GRAVEL


Relative particle size microns
Relative Particle Size (Microns) $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

50

Small

Hollow

Spheres

147

100 Mesh

Screen

300

Large

Hollow

Spheres

1700

Frac

Sand

(12 mesh)


Composite hollow spheres
Composite Hollow Spheres $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Composite sphere densities
Composite Sphere Densities $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Foam System Density (g/cc)

Water

Depth (ft)

Thermoplastic

Macrospheres

GRE

Minispheres

Carbon Fibre

Minispheres

PVC

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

11000

12000

13000

15000

0.25

0.36

0.28

0.34

0.36

0.39

0.43

0.44

0.48

0.53

0.53

0.40

0.41

0.45

0.48

0.51

0.55

0.60

0.62

0.65

0.43

0.45

0.46

0.48

0.50

0.53

0.56

0.59

0.61

0.66


Riser buoyancy modules
Riser Buoyancy Modules $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Solids separation
Solids Separation $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Dgd sphere separation system 1

Mud $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

1500 gpm

Spheres

500 gpm

+

DGD Sphere Separation System 1

20 Mesh

MICRONS

100

1000

Return Mud

2000 gpm

25% Spheres

Shale

Shaker

Large Cuttings

Large

Spheres

100

20

MESH

100 Mesh

Spheres

500 gpm

Spheres

Shale

Shaker

Spheres

Seawater

Medium Cuttings

Spheres

500 gpm

Mud

1500 gpm

Clean Mud

500 gpm

Conventional

Mud

System

To Rig Pump

1000 gpm

No Spheres

To Seafloor

1000 gpm

50% Spheres

Fine Cuttings


Hydrocyclone separator
Hydrocyclone Separator $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Mud & Spheres

Barite (SG = 4.25)

Drill Cuttings (SG = 2.65)

Hollow Spheres (SG = 0.4)

Water (SG = 100)

Barite, Drill Cuttings


Dgd sphere separation system 2

MICRONS $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

100

1000

Large

Spheres

100

20

MESH

DGD Sphere Separation System 2

20 Mesh

Large Cuttings

Return Mud

2000 gpm

25% Spheres

Shale

Shaker

Spheres

500 gpm

Mud

500 gpm

+

Special

Hydrocyclone

Centrifugal

Pump

100 Mesh

Medium Cuttings

(Few Spheres)

Shale

Shaker

Mud 1000 gpm

Mud

1000 gpm

Clean Mud

Conventional

Mud

System

To Rig Pump

1000 gpm

No Spheres

To Seafloor

1000 gpm

50% Spheres

Fine Cuttings


Effect of spheres on plastic viscosity
Effect of Spheres on Plastic Viscosity $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Water

36% Spheres


Alternative hollow sphere injection systems
Alternative Hollow Sphere $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”Injection Systems


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Wellhead $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

and BOP

Mud Line

Drillstring Injection DGD System

Swivel

Sphere Mixing Tank

Mud Pump

(Mud)

Mud

Drill Ship

Drillpipe

Riser

Mud & Spheres

Sphere Separator

Mud

Casing

Rock

BHA


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Drill String Sphere Separator $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Drill Pipe

Riser

Spheres

& Mud

Spheres

& Mud

Spheres

Sphere

Separator

Sea Floor

Mud

Casing

Drill Bit


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Carrier Fluid Dual Gradient System $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Swivel

Shale Shaker

Mud Pump

(Spheres)

Spheres

Mud Pump

(Mud)

Mud

Flow Controller

Drill Ship

Carrier

Fluid

Drillpipe

Riser

Mud & Spheres

Carrier Fluid

& Spheres

Injector

Pump

Screen

Wellhead

and BOP

Valve

Mud Line

Choke

Mud

Rock

BHA


Carrier fluid dual gradient system
Carrier Fluid Dual Gradient System $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Carrier Fluid

Plus Spheres

Return Line

Carrier

Fluid

Injector Pump

(Moineau)

Screen

Choke

Mud

Valve

Mud


Seawater transfer system
Seawater Transfer System $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Seawater and

Spheres

Mud and

Spheres

Injector Pump

(Moineau)

Seawater

Screen

Mud

Mud


Spreading pore pressure frac curves apart
Spreading Pore Pressure/Frac Curves Apart $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Surface

Seafloor

Fracture

Increased Frac Pressure

pressure

Depth

Flow Drilling

Pore pressure

Pressure


Curved gradient drilling
Curved Gradient Drilling $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Conventional Deep Water Drilling $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Riser

Sea Floor

Fracture Gradient

Pore Pressure

Gradient

Safe Zone


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Dual-Gradient Deep Water Drilling $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Riser

Sea Floor

Subsea

Pumps

Fracture Gradient

Pore Pressure

Gradient

Safe Zone


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Curved-Gradient Deep Water Drilling $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Gas or Sphere

Injection Points

Riser

Sea Floor

Fracture Gradient

Pore Pressure

Gradient

Safe Zone


Fluid injection techniques
Fluid Injection Techniques $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

DRILLING FLUID

GAS OR

SPHERES

SPHERES

OR GAS

SPHERES

OR GAS

PARASITE

`

`

INJECTION

MUD

PORT

Concentric Drill Pipe

Parasite String

SPHERES

OR GAS

SPHERES

OR GAS

`

`

MUD

MUD

Nozzle

Tie-Back Casing

Jet Sub


Seafloor sphere injection
Seafloor Sphere Injection $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

0

Sea Water Density (8.6 ppg) (50%)

6000

Seafloor Sphere Injection

Riser

4470 psi

Sea Floor

Well Depth (ft)

10000

14 ppg (0%)

Casing

8110 psi

15000

11,750 psi

20000

0

5,000

10,000

15,000

Annulus Pressure (psi)


Sub seafloor sphere injection
Sub Seafloor Sphere Injection $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

0

6000

10.4 ppg (33%)

Riser

5410 psi

4470 psi

Sea Floor

Well Depth (ft)

10000

14 ppg (0%)

Casing

8110 psi

15000

11,750 psi

Sub Sea Floor

Sphere Injection

20000

0

5,000

10,000

15,000

Annulus Pressure (psi)


Sub seafloor sphere injection1
Sub Seafloor Sphere Injection $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

0

6000

11.3 ppg (25%)

Riser

5876 psi

4470 psi

Sea Floor

Well Depth (ft)

10000

14 ppg (0%)

Casing

8110 psi

15000

11,750 psi

Sub Sea Floor

Sphere Injection

20000

0

5,000

10,000

15,000

Annulus Pressure (psi)


Lightweight brine drilling fluid
Lightweight Brine Drilling Fluid $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

Sea Water

(8.56 ppg)

Salt Brine

(12 ppg)

Salt Brine + 39% Spheres

(8.56 ppg)


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

Major Questions $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

  • Will Hollow Spheres Survive?

  • Can Spheres Be Pumped Reliably?

  • Can Spheres Be Separated From Mud?

  • Can Sphere Circulation Be Initiated after Shutdowns?

  • Maximum Sphere Concentration Achievable?

  • How to Detect and Handle Kicks?

  • Can Constant Seafloor Pressure Be Maintained?

  • System Cost and Reliability?


Hollow sphere dual gradient drilling system

The End $5 - 15 million in casing running alone”

www.maurertechnology.com